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The Economics of Human Trafficking Research Group


Addressing human trafficking is a priority for the EU and many other countries worldwide. Gauging magnitudes of the crime and evaluating anti-trafficking policies provides a critical tool for systematic analysis on human trafficking and evidence-based policy making. Despite its political relevance, assessments on the sizes, causes and consequences of human trafficking are still rare and scientific research in this field is only in its infancy.

Our research group aims at contributing to the field of the economics of human trafficking by providing the two scientific outcomes listed below.

(i) The introduction and annual update of the 3P Anti-trafficking Policy Index, evaluating policy efforts against human trafficking in the three main areas of prosecution, protection and prevention (3Ps) worldwide.

(ii) Economic research on the causes and consequences of human trafficking and its policy implications. 

For detailed information on our research on human trafficking, please visit


"3P" Anti-trafficking Policy Index

The 3P Anti-trafficking Policy Index for 2015

2015 country ranking (189 countries) // 3P-Index report for 2015 // 2000-2015 data

Evaluating Policies against Human Trafficking Worldwide - An Overview and Review of the 3P Index. (Cho, S-Y. 2015, Journal of Human Trafficking)


●  The 3P Anti-trafficking Policy Index evaluates governmental anti-trafficking efforts in the three main policy dimensions (3Ps), based on the requirements prescribed by the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (2000).

●  The three main policy dimensions are: 3Ps 

               Prosecution of perpetrators of human trafficking 

               Protection of victims of human trafficking

              Prevention of human trafficking

●  Each of the 3P areas is evaluated on a 5-point scale (score 1-5) and each index is aggregated to the overall 3P Anti-trafficking Index as the sum (score 3-15).

●  The 3P Anti-trafficking Policy Index is currently available for each country and year covering up to 189 countries since 2000. To download the index data and see further information, please visit

●  The 3P Anti-trafficking Policy Index was developed as part of the EU Project, Indexing Trafficking in Human Beings - Gauging its Trends, Causes and Consequences in the European Dimension (ISEC/2009/005, 2010-2012, Georg-August University of Goettingen) and is updated every year. The update is presented on the website, The Economics of Human Trafficking.

●  Inquiries: Prof. Dr. Seo-Young Cho (Author of the Index,

Current and Recent Research Projects on Human Trafficking

  • Project on Irregular Flow of Female Migrants: an Interdisciplinary & Cross-country Study (2016-2017, financed by German Academic Exchange Service/DAAD Australia-Germany Research Cooperation Scheme, Co-project leader: Seo-Young Cho, in collaboration with Dr. Natalia Szablewska, Southern Cross University, Australia)
  • European Commission Tender: Study on Prevention Initiatives on Trafficking in Human beings (2014-2015, Consultant: Seo-Young Cho)
  • EU-Project on Tools for the Validation and Utilisation of EU Statistics on Human Trafficking (2012-2014, Project leader: Tilburg University, Consultant: Seo-Young Cho)
  • EU-Project on Europe-Asia Dialogue, Cluster Human Trafficking (2012-2014, Project leader: Konrad Adenauer Foundation, Consultant: Seo-Young Cho)
  • Journal of Human Trafficking (Advisory Board: Seo-Young Cho)

Last modified: 23.01.2018 · cho

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