Environmental research investigating the age and continuity of the human footprint is challenged by two main constraints: (i) uncertainty about how human behavior adapted to past climatic challenges and (ii) uncertainty about how to differentiate between human and climate signals in paleo-proxies. Therefore a multi-disciplinary approach manifests itself in subprojects listed below. Those are focused on the human side of environmental change (P1 – Archeology and Archeozoology, P2 – Anthrosols and Intensity of Human Occupation) and the natural side of environmental change (P5 – Paleoclimatology, P6 – Glacial Chronology and P7 – Ground Beetles as a Human-Independent Paleoproxy). P4 –Giant mole-rats as synanthropic landscape engineers will focus on disentangling the role of the endemic giant mole-rat (GMR - Tachyoryctes macrocephalus) as a natural biotic landscape engineer from anthropogenic transformation in the Bale Mountains (Mts.) and P3 – Environmental Baseline Assessment will complete the project by providing relevant baseline environmental and ecological information to the other projects.