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More detailed information on the publications of Stephan Imhof here.


Zizka A, Onstein RE, Rozzi R, Weigelt P, Kreft H, Steinbauer M., Bruelheide H, & Lens F (2022). Plant longevity, drought and island isolation favoured rampant evolutionary transitions towards insular woodiness. BioRxiv.[open access]

Terdersoo L, Mikryukov V, Zizka A & others (2022) Towards understanding diversity, endemicity and global change vulnerability of soil fungi. BioRxiv.[open access]

Feller B, Dančák M, Hroneš M, Sochor M, Suetsugu K, Imhof S (2022): Mycorrhizal structures in mycoheterotrophic Thismia spp. (Thismiaceae): functional and evolutionary interpretations. Mycorrhiza online.[open access]

Cano A, Stauffer FW, Andermann T, Liberal IM, Zizka A, Bacon CD, Lorenzi H, Christine C, Töpel M, Perret M & Antonelli A (2022) Recent and local diversification of Central American palms. Global ecology and Biogeography.[open access]

Colli-Silva M, Pirani JR & Zizka A (2022) Ecological niche models and point distribution data reveal a differential coverage of the cacao relatives (Malvaceae) in South American protected areas. Ecological Informatics.

Klimeš A, Šímová I, Zizka A, Antonelli A & Herben T (2022) The ecological drivers of growth form evolution in flowering plants. Journal of Ecology.

Zizka A, Andermann T, & Silvestro D (2022). IUCNN–Deep learning approaches to approximate species’ extinction risk. Diversity and Distributions, 28(2), 227–241.[open access]

Pérez-Escobar OA, Zizka A, Bermúdez MA, Meseguer AS, Condamine FL, Hoorn C, Hooghiemstra H, Pu Y, Bogarín D, Boschman LM & others. (2022). The Andes through time: Evolution and distribution of Andean floras. Trends in Plant Science, 27(4):364-378.[open access]

Cazalis V, Di Marco, M, Butchart, SH, Akçakaya, H., González-Suárez M, Meyer C, Clausnitzer V, Böhm M, Zizka A, Cardoso, P, & others. (2022). Bridging the research-implementation gap in IUCN Red List assessments. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 37(4):359-370.


Zizka, A., Silvestro, D., Vitt, P., & Knight, T. M. (2021). Automated conservation assessment of the orchid family with deep learning. Conservation Biology, 35(3), 897–908.

Zizka, A., Rydén, O., Edler, D., Klein, J., Perrigo, A., Silvestro, D., Jagers, S. C., Lindberg, S. I., & Antonelli, A. (2021). Bio-Dem, a tool to explore the relationship between biodiversity data availability and socio-political conditions in time and space. Journal of Biogeography, 48(11), 2715–2726.

Zizka, A., Barratt, C. D., Ritter, C. D., Joerger-Hickfang, T., & Zizka, V. M. (2021). Existing approaches and future directions to link macroecology, macroevolution and conservation prioritization. Ecography.

Zizka, A., Antonelli, A., & Silvestro, D. (2021). Sampbias, a method for quantifying geographic sampling biases in species distribution data. Ecography, 44(1), 25–32.

Rouet-Leduc, J., Pe’er, G., Moreira, F., Bonn, A., Helmer, W., Shahsavan Zadeh, S. A., Zizka, A., & van der Plas, F. (2021). Effects of large herbivores on fire regimes and wildfire mitigation. Journal of Applied Ecology, 58(12), 2690–2702.

Jiménez, M. F. T., Prata, E., Zizka, A., Cohn-Haft, M., de Oliveira, A. V., Emilio, T., Chazot, N., Couvreur, T. L., Kamga, S. M., Sonké, B., & others. (2021). Phylogenomics of the Palm Tribe Lepidocaryeae (Calamoideae: Arecaceae) and Description of a New Species of Mauritiella. Systematic Botany, 46(3), 863–874.

Hooft van Huysduynen, A., Janssens, S., Merckx, V., Vos, R., Valente, L., Zizka, A., Larter, M., Karabayir, B., Maaskant, D., Witmer, Y., & others. (2021). Temporal and palaeoclimatic context of the evolution of insular woodiness in the Canary Islands. Ecology and Evolution, 11(17), 12220–12231.

Freiberg, M., Winter, M., Gentile, A., Zizka, A., Muellner-Riehl, A. N., Weigelt, A., & Wirth, C. (2021). A new and improved online catalogue of all extant vascular plant names available. Taxon, 70(1), 223–223.

Colli-Silva, M., Pirani, J. R., & Zizka, A. (2021). Disjunct plant species in South American seasonally dry tropical forests responded differently to past climatic fluctuations. Frontiers of Biogeography, 13(1).

Arlé, E., Zizka, A., Keil, P., Winter, M., Essl, F., Knight, T., Weigelt, P., Jiménez-Muñoz, M., & Meyer, C. (2021). bRacatus: A method to estimate the accuracy and biogeographical status of georeferenced biological data. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 12(9), 1609–1619.


Imhof, S., Feller, B., Heser, A. (2020): Morpho-anatomical differences among mycoheterotrophic Afrothismia spp. (Thismiaceae) indicate an evolutionary progression towards improved mycorrhizal benefit. Mycorrhiza 30(2): 397-405

Zizka, A., Carvalho-Sobrinho, J. G., Pennington, R. T., Queiroz, L. P., Alcantara, S., Baum, D. A., Bacon, C. D., & Antonelli, A. (2020). Transitions between biomes are common and directional in Bombacoideae (Malvaceae). Journal of Biogeography.

Zizka, A., Carvalho, F. A., Calvente, A., Baez-Lizarazo, M. R., Cabral, A., Coelho, J. F. R., Colli-Silva, M., Fantinati, M. R., Fernandes, M. F., Ferreira-Araujo, T., & others. (2020). No one-size-fits-all solution to clean GBIF. PeerJ, 8, e9916.

Zizka, A., Azevedo, J., Leme, E., Neves, B., da Costa, A. F., Caceres, D., & Zizka, G. (2020). Biogeography and conservation status of the pineapple family (Bromeliaceae). Diversity and Distributions, 26, 183–195.

Rydén, O., Zizka, A., Jagers, S. C., Lindberg, S. I., & Antonelli, A. (2020). Linking democracy and biodiversity conservation: Empirical evidence and research gaps. Ambio, 49, 419–433.

Pimiento, C., Bacon, C. D., Silvestro, D., Hendy, A., Jaramillo, C., Zizka, A., Meyer, X., & Antonelli, A. (2020). Selective extinction against redundant species buffers functional diversity. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 287(1931), 20201162.

Helmstetter, A. J., Kamga, S. M., Bethune, K., Lautenschläger, T., Zizka, A., Bacon, C. D., Wieringa, J. J., Stauffer, F., Antonelli, A., Sonké, B., & others. (2020). Unraveling the phylogenomic relationships of the most diverse African palm genus Raphia (Calamoideae, Arecaceae). Plants, 9(4), 549.

Freiberg, M., Winter, M., Gentile, A., Zizka, A., Muellner-Riehl, A. N., Weigelt, A., & Wirth, C. (2020). LCVP, The Leipzig catalogue of vascular plants, a new taxonomic reference list for all known vascular plants. Scientific Data, 7(1), 1–7.

Carrillo, J. D., Faurby, S., Silvestro, D., Zizka, A., Jaramillo, C., Bacon, C. D., & Antonelli, A. (2020). Disproportionate extinction of South American mammals drove the asymmetry of the Great American Biotic Interchange. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(42), 26281–26287.


Zizka, A., Silvestro, D., Andermann, T., Azevedo, J., Duarte Ritter, C., Edler, D., Farooq, H., Herdean, A., Ariza, M., Scharn, R., & others. (2019). CoordinateCleaner: Standardized cleaning of occurrence records from biological collection databases. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 10(5), 744–751.

Zizka, A. (2019). Big data suggest migration and bioregion connectivity as crucial for the evolution of Neotropical biodiversity. Frontiers of Biogeography, 11(2).

Silvestro, D., Tejedor, M. F., Serrano-Serrano, M. L., Loiseau, O., Rossier, V., Rolland, J., Zizka, A., Höhna, S., Antonelli, A., & Salamin, N. (2019). Early arrival and climatically-linked geographic expansion of New World monkeys from tiny African ancestors. Systematic Biology, 68(1), 78–92.

Ritter, C. D., Zizka, A., Barnes, C., Nilsson, R. H., Roger, F., & Antonelli, A. (2019). Locality or habitat? Exploring predictors of biodiversity in Amazonia. Ecography, 42(2), 321–333.

Ritter, C. D., Faurby, S., Bennett, D. J., Naka, L. N., ter Steege, H., Zizka, A., Haenel, Q., Nilsson, R. H., & Antonelli, A. (2019). The pitfalls of biodiversity proxies: Differences in richness patterns of birds, trees and understudied diversity across Amazonia. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 1–13.


Zizka, A., Steege, H. ter, Pessoa, M. do C. R., & Antonelli, A. (2018). Finding needles in the haystack: Where to look for rare species in the American tropics. Ecography, 41(2), 321–330.

Zizka, A., & Antonelli, A. (2018). Mountains of diversity. Nature, 555, 173-174.

Ritter, C. D., Zizka, A., Roger, F., Tuomisto, H., Barnes, C., Nilsson, R. H., & Antonelli, A. (2018). High-throughput metabarcoding reveals the effect of physicochemical soil properties on soil and litter biodiversity and community turnover across Amazonia. PeerJ, 6, e5661.

Guedes, T. B., Sawaya, R. J., Zizka, A., Laffan, S., Faurby, S., Pyron, R. A., Bernils, R. S., Jansen, M., Passos, P., Prudente, A. L., & others. (2018). Patterns, biases and prospects in the distribution and diversity of Neotropical snakes. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 27(1), 14–21.

Bennett, D. J., Hettling, H., Silvestro, D., Zizka, A., Bacon, C. D., Faurby, S., Vos, R. A., & Antonelli, A. (2018). PhylotaR: An automated pipeline for retrieving orthologous DNA sequences from GenBank in R. Life, 8(2), 20.

Andermann, T., Cano, Á., Zizka, A., Bacon, C., & Antonelli, A. (2018). SECAPR—a bioinformatics pipeline for the rapid and user-friendly processing of targeted enriched Illumina sequences, from raw reads to alignments. PeerJ, 6, e5175.

Antonelli, A., Ariza, M., Albert, J., Andermann, T., Azevedo, J., Bacon, C., Faurby, S., Guedes, T., Hoorn, C., Lohmann, L. G., & others. (2018). Conceptual and empirical advances in Neotropical biodiversity research. PeerJ, 6, e5644.

Antonelli, A., Zizka, A., Carvalho, F. A., Scharn, R., Bacon, C. D., Silvestro, D., & Condamine, F. L. (2018). Amazonia is the primary source of Neotropical biodiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(23), 6034–6039.


Imhof, S. (2017): Distel, Wein und Pfaffenhütchen - Die Pflanzendarstellungen am Deckengewölbe der Kugelkirche. Pinguindruck, Berlin.

Töpel, M., Zizka, A., Calió, M. F., Scharn, R., Silvestro, D., & Antonelli, A. (2017). SpeciesGeoCoder: Fast categorization of species occurrences for analyses of biodiversity, biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Systematic Biology, 66(2), 145–151.

Schmidt, M., Zizka, A., Traore, S., Ataholo, M., Chatelain, C., Daget, P., Dressler, S., Hahn, K., Kirchmair, I., Krohmer, E., Julia, Mbayngone, & others. (2017). Diversity, distribution and preliminary conservation status of the flora of Burkina Faso. Phytotaxa, 304, 1–304.

Edler, D., Guedes, T., Zizka, A., Rosvall, M., & Antonelli, A. (2017). Infomap bioregions: Interactive mapping of biogeographical regions from species distributions. Systematic Biology, 66(2), 197–204.


Silvestro, D., Zizka, A., Bacon, C. D., Cascales-Minana, B., Salamin, N., & Antonelli, A. (2016). Fossil biogeography: A new model to infer dispersal, extinction and sampling from palaeontological data. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 371(1691), 20150225.


Zizka, A., Thiombiano, A., Dressler, S., Nacoulma, B. M., Ouédraogo, A., Ouédraogo, I., Ouédraogo, O., Zizka, G., Hahn, K., & Schmidt, M. (2015). Traditional plant use in Burkina Faso (West Africa): A national-scale analysis with focus on traditional medicine. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 11(1), 1–10.

Zizka, A., Thiombiano, A., Dressler, S., Nacoulma, B. M., Ouédraogo, A., Ouédraogo, I., Ouédraogo, O., Zizka, G., Hahn, K., & Schmidt, M. (2015). The vascular plant diversity of Burkina Faso (West Africa)—A quantitative analysis and implications for conservation. Candollea, 70(1), 9–20.

Maldonado, C., Molina, C. I., Zizka, A., Persson, C., Taylor, C. M., Albán, J., Chilquillo, E., Rønsted, N., & Antonelli, A. (2015). Estimating species diversity and distribution in the era of Big Data: To what extent can we trust public databases? Global Ecology and Biogeography, 24(8), 973–984.

Antonelli, A., Zizka, A., Silvestro, D., Scharn, R., Cascales-Miñana, B., & Bacon, C. D. (2015). An engine for global plant diversity: Highest evolutionary turnover and emigration in the American tropics. Frontiers in Genetics, 6, 130.


Zizka, A., Govender, N., & Higgins, S. I. (2014). How to tell a shrub from a tree: A life-history perspective from a South African savanna. Austral Ecology, 39(7), 767–778.

Rath, M., Grolig, F., Haueisen, J., Imhof, S. (2014): Combining microtomy and confocal laser scanning microscopy for structural analysis of plant-fungus associations. Mycorrhiza 24(4): 293-300


Schmidt, M., Traoré, S., Ouédraogo, A., Mbayngone, E., Ouédraogo, O., Zizka, A., Kirchmair, I., Kaboré, E., Tindano, E., Thiombiano, A., & others. (2013). Geographical patterns of woody plants’ functional traits in Burkina Faso. Candollea, 68(2), 197–207.

Imhof, S., Massicotte, H.B., Melville, L.H., Peterson, R.L. (2013): Subterranean morphology and mycorrhizal structures. In: Merckx, V.S.F.T. (ed.): Mycoheterotrophy - The Biology of Plants Living on Fungi. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, pp. 157-215

Rath, M., Weber, H.C., Imhof, S. (2013): Morpho-anatomical and molecular characterization of the mycorrhizas of european Polygala species. Plant Biology 15: 548-557


Schmidt, M., Thiombiano, A., Zizka, A., König, K., Brunken, U., & Zizka, G. (2011). Patterns of plant functional traits in the biogeography of West African grasses (Poaceae). African Journal of Ecology, 49(4), 490–500.

2010 and earlier

Imhof, S. (2010 onwards): Mycoheterotrophic plants - How many of them are there? Scratchpads - Biodiversity online.

Imhof, S. (2010): Are monocots particularly suited to develop mycoheterotrophy? In: Seberg, O., Petersen, G., Barfod, A., Davis, J. I. (eds): Diversity, Phylogeny and Evolution in the Monocotyledons. Aarhus University Press, Kopenhagen, pp. 11-23

Imhof, S. (2009): Arbuscular, ecto-related, orchid mycorrhizas - three independent structural lineages towards mycoheterotrophy. Implications for classification? Mycorriza 19: 357-363. 

Appelhans, M., Weber, H.C., Imhof, S. (2008): Rutaceae sampled from Germany, Malta and Mallorca (Spain) are associated with AMF clustering with Glomus hoi (Berch & Trappe). Mycorrhiza 18: 263-268

Imhof, S., Sainge, M.N. (2008): Ontogeny of the mycoheterotrophic Afrothismia hydra (Burmanniaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157:31-36

Imhof, S. (2007): Specialized mycorrhizal colonization pattern in achlorophyllous Epirixanthes spp. (Polygalaceae). Plant Biol. 9: 786-792

Imhof, S. (2006): Two distinct fungi colonize roots and rhizomes of the myco-heterotrophic Afrothismia gesnerioides (Burmanniaceae). Can. J. Bot. 84: 852-861

Imhof, S. (2005): Fundmeldungen 1196.-1200. Botanik und Naturschutz in Hessen  18: 75-77

Imhof, S. (2004): Fundmeldungen 1128.-1133, Buchbesprechung, Website-Empfehlungen. Botanik und Naturschutz in Hessen 17: 138-140, 173-174, 179-183

Imhof, S. (2004): Morphology and development of the subterranean organs of the achlorophyllous Sciaphila polygyna (Triuridaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 146: 295-301

Wu, W.Y., Weber, H.C., Imhof, S. (2004): Morphogenesis and structure of hairs of Tetrapanax papyriferus (Hook.) K. Koch (Araliaceae). Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 73: 213-221

Imhof, S. (2003): A dorsiventral mycorrhizal root in the achlorophyllous Sciaphila polygyna (Triuridaceae). Mycorrhiza 13: 327 - 332

Döring, M., Imhof, S., Weber, H.C., Ewald, D. (2003): Propagation by leaf cuttings of Eleutherococcus Max. (Araliaceae). J. Appl. Bot. 77: 57-60

Imhof, S. (2001): Subterranean structures and mycotrophy of the achlorophyllous Dictyostega orobanchoides (Hook.) Miers (Burmanniaceae). Rev. Biol. Trop. 49(1): 237 - 245

Diallo, A., Weber, H.C., Imhof, S. (2001): Sonderstellung der Mykorrhiza von Mercurialis perennis L. im Vergleich mit anderen Euphorbiaceae. Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 72: 315-323

Imhof, S., Weber, H.C. (2000): Root structures and mycorrhiza of the achlorophyllous Voyria obconica Progel (Gentianaceae). Symbiosis 29: 201 - 211

Imhof, S. (1999): Anatomy and mycotrophy of the achlorophyllous Afrothismia winkleri (Engl.) Schltr. (Burmanniaceae). New Phytol. 144: 533-540

Imhof, S. (1999): Subterranean structures and mycorrhiza of the achlorophyllous Burmannia tenella Bentham (Burmanniaceae). Can. J. Bot. 77: 637-643

Imhof, S. (1999): Root morphology, anatomy and mycotrophy of the achlorophyllous Voyria aphylla (Jacq.) Pers. (Gentianaceae). Mycorrhiza 9: 33-39

Imhof, S. (1998): Subterranean structures and mycotrophy of the achlorophyllous Triuris hyalina (Triuridaceae). Can. J. Bot. 76 : 2010-2019

Weber, H.C., Alexander, S., Imhof, S. (1998): The enrichment of ginseng garden soils with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In: Weber, H.C., Zeuske, D., Imhof, S.: Ginseng in Europe. Proceedings of the 1st European Ginseng Congress, pp 59-66. Marburg, Germany, 6-11 December 1998

Imhof, S. (1997): Root anatomy and mycotrophy of the achlorophyllous Voyria tenella Hooker (Gentianaceae). Bot. Acta 110: 298-305

Imhof, S., Weber. H.C. (1997): Root anatomy and mycotrophy (AM) of the achlorophyllous Voyria truncata (Standley) Standley & Steyermark (Gentianaceae). Bot. Acta 110: 127-134

Imhof, S., Weber, H. C., Gómez, L.D. (1994): Ein Beitrag zur Biologie von Voyria tenella Hook. und Voyria truncata (Standley) Standley & Steyermark (Gentianaceae). Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 68: 113-123