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Laufende Dissertationen

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen Üner Altay: Üner Altay: Thinking Turkish Identity and Psyche through Islamic Horror Cinema

    Das islamische Horrorfilmgenre stellt ein relativ neues, populäres Genre im türkischen Kino und Fernsehen dar. Islamische Horrorfilme und -fernsehserien basieren im Allgemeinen auf der religiösen Grundlage von Sünde, Hölle und Satan, mit dem Ziel Angst und Unbehagen im Zuschauer zu erzeugen. So sind es vorrangig moderne, laizistische, urbane Protago­nisten, die psychischem und physischem Schmerz durch das Böse, wie den Dschinn und andere übernatürliche Mächten aus dem Koran, ausgesetzt sind, weil sie Ungläubige sind. Abhängigkeit von Tech­nologie, sexuelle Freiheit oder Abtreibung gelten als sündiger Akt. Im größeren Kontext gese­hen, zielt das Genre auf „die wissenschaftliche, westliche Mentalität“ ab: den erfolglosen Kampf der Wissenschaftler gegen das Übernatürliche.

    Das Aufkommen von türkisch-islamischen Horrorfilmen verlief zeitgleich mit dem Wahlerfolg der islamistischen Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi (AKP). Dies Genre wurde anscheinend ein kulturelles Produkt dieser Ära, und ihre Filme könnten daher als ein jahrhundertealtes Ringen türkischer Säkularisten und islamischen Mächte darüber gesehen werden, wer die Oberhand über die türkischen Politik behält. In türkischen Horrorfilmen werden Charaktere dargestellt, die ständig eine Identitäts­verwirrtheit und Unruhe durchlaufen. Obwohl diese Personen ein modernes Leben führen, wer­den sie von den übernatürlichen Kräften umzingelt und angegriffen, indem sie ihnen Gefühle von Angst und Unterwerfung indoktrinieren. Diese Form von Kontrolle ist tatsächlich sehr ähnlich zu dem, was der religiöse Teil der türkischen Gesellschaft durchmachte, als die mo­derne und säkulare Republik Türkei gegründet wurde. Die Auflösung des Kalifats, die Schlie­ßung der Derwisch-Konvente und theologischen Schulen, die Abschaffung des Ottoman Al­phabets, die Einführung der modernen Kleidervorschrift durch gesetzlichen Vollzug und an­dere Reformen in dieser Richtung wurden als höchst beunruhigende Einschränkungen der religiösen Bevölkerung wahrgenommen. Der politische Islam ist im gewissen Sinne die Rückkehr von prämodernen Werten durch politische Parteien, die den enormen wirtschaftli­chen Rückhalt der islamistischen Unternehmer genießen. Türkische Horrorfilme mit islami­schen Elementen sind in der Tat eine der kulturellen Indikatoren dafür, dass sich ein politi­scher Machtwechsel im Land andeutet.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen Hala Ghoname: Hala Ghoname: Orientalists’ Portraits of Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā Between Historical Documentation, Politics, and Edward Saeed’s Paradigm of Orientalism

    The Ottoman period of the Islamic history in Egypt is an undeniable phase in the country’s transformation into a modern state. That major transformation happened, when Muhammad Alī Bāshā Al- Masu’d Ibn Agha (born in Kavala in 1769- died in 1849 AD), came to be the Wāli of Egypt (Arabic: for governor) from 1805 to 1849 AD. He was not only known for his military excellence, but also for his great vision for development and his ambitious attempts to build a powerful, modern, and independent Egypt. Foreign policy and international relations of Egypt during the era of Muhammad Ali were quite distinguished. In 1798, Egypt was a part of the Ottoman Empire (Welayah) , however, it was also ruled by the Mamelukes. In that same year, Napoleon Bonaparte started his military expedition to Egypt, conquering the Mamelukes in the Battle of the Pyramids. Under the British pressure, the Ottomans assembled forces hoping to banish the French. So, in March 8th of 1801, a contingent of 300 soldiers with Muhammad Ali as a lieutenant, who soon became in command, came to Egypt as part of the Ottoman forces . After the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, proclaiming that Egypt was to be restored to the Ottoman Sultan, it was Muhammad Ali’s chance to climb his way up in ranks and power. Soon he became the Wali of Egypt, after several incidents with the Mamelukes, and the British. With those incidents, and other external connections to Europe, the image of Muhammad Ali was formed in the European mentality. How was the image of Muhammad Ali transferred to the Europeans? In this dissertation, I am focusing on the relics of Muhammad Ali’s international and foreign policies from a different perspective. How was Muhammad Ali depicted by European orientalist painters during his reign, in the absence of today’s visual media? What was the role of art in serving politics? Were Orientalist paintings of Muhammad Ali and his era purely documentary, or, did they support specific agendas and political campaigns? Were these paintings biased? Do they fit within the well-established orientalism theory? In depth, how do those paintings challenge Edward Sa’eed’s paradigm of Orientalism? How did Muhammad Ali use orientalist paintings in establishing relations with the Europeans? Does the Soft power, by its modern concept developed by Joseph Nye apply in this case?

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen Moujib El Mustapha: Moujib El Mustapha: Allgemeine Entwicklungen und Beschreibungen der Hip-Hop-Darija und Jugendkultur am Beispiel von Hip-Hop-Musik in Casablanca/Marokko

    Die Jugend in Marokko stellt ein sehr wichtiges Potenzial für die marokkanische Gesellschaft dar, da sich in Marokko seit dem Arabischen Frühling große Herausforderungen im politischen, sozialen sowie im kulturellen Bereich entwickeln. In diesem Land zielte der Arabische Frühling auf einen Fortschritt durch Reformen – und nicht durch Blutvergießen und gewalttätige Auseinandersetzungen – ab.

    Man datiert gleichzeitig eine rasante Entwicklung des politischen, kulturellen sowie sprachlichen Bewusstseins der Jugend in Marokko im Kontext der aktuellen Ereignisse in der arabischen Welt. Die Tonspur zum Arabischen Frühling schreibt der marokkanische Hip-Hop durch die jugendliche Generation "Nayda".

    Das Thema der Dissertation vereint die Erscheinung und Entwicklung der Hip-Hop Musik als eine Subkultur in Marokko mit der Beschreibung der verwendeten Sprache „Darija“ dieser Musik. Dabei werden Methoden der unterschiedlichen Disziplinen Soziolinguistik und Kulturwissenschaften verwendet. Die zentralen Fragen der Arbeit kreisen um die Integration des Phänomens Hip-Hop in das islamische Marokko; außerdem wird ein spezieller Fokus auf die Position der Frau, der "Rapperin", im Hip-Hop gelegt. Eine linguistische Analyse der „ Darija“ wird in diesem  Zusammenhang berücksichtigt.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen Maike Neufend: Maike Neufend: Aesthetic Formations of the Social - Contemporary Styles of popular Sufism in Beirut

    Questions of aesthetic formations of the social have been marginalized within social sciences since the beginning of the discipline in Western contexts. Due to the conception of Modernity as process of rationalization and subsequently secularization, the aesthetic was constructed as the “other of modernity” projected onto past societies, non-Western cultures or onto social spheres perceived as rooted within a pre-modern past, like religion (Matin Asgari 2013; Reckwitz 2015; Eßbach 2001). Sufism as individual path to self-realization played a pivotal role for the construction of a positive Orientalist notion of Islam as origin of esoteric wisdom in the West. Since the turn of the nineteenth century Sufi thought was used by European avant-garde movements to doubt categories of a rational and anti-aesthetic “European modernity” (Sedgwick 2008; 2004). In Lebanon, already in the second half of nineteenth century mystic dimensions in non-religious poetry developed and neoclassical poets turned to poetic medieval heritage. This tendency is visible in the works of poets who had been communist or leftist “trying to heal their spiritual malaise and to express their sense of alienation in modern civilization, their found refuge in Sufism” (Snir 2006, 83). During the 1960s, a time when the liberation movement in the Arab world began to decline, Sufism was adopted by secular Arabic poets who became increasingly disillusioned with the revolutionary regimes they had fought for (Simawe 2001, 121). However, in much of the Western social sciences Sufism, or Islam in general, is understood as inadequate to the work of social and economic development (Bruinessen/Howell 2007, 7).

    Against scholarly predictions as well as religious political mobilizations to mark Sufism as anti-Modern, it is now reported in various studies that Sufism at the end of the twentieth century expanded among the urban middle classes through out Muslim majority societies and the West (Day Howell 2006, 2012; Knysh 2008, Sedgwick 2008, 2012). Sufism’s stability and partly resurgence calls for a deeper understanding of post-Modern religious subjectivities within the MENA-region. Scholars argue that Sufism should be analyzed beyond concepts of Modernity, and in context of globalization, pluralization, post-materialism and post-modernism (Voll 2007; Kim 2008, 29). The focus of this study is to analyze contemporary forms of subjectivities through the lens of popular Sufi culture in Beirut, Lebanon. The interdisciplinary approach pursued is based on the observation of larger entangled developments, the aesthetization of social life and the global presence of religion, both of which are analyzed in the frame of late or post-Modernity. By focusing on practices and technologies of the self within contemporary popular Sufism in Beirut as well as textual material interlocutors relate to, this study aims at contributing to the broader discourse on modernizations, de-/secularization and aesthetization in the MENA-region.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen Anthony Quickel: Anthony Quickel: Trends and Patterns of Book Ownership among Merchant Groups in 16th/17th Century Cairo

    Egypt during the 16th and 17th centuries was undergoing changes in its political, cultural, and economic situation as a result of the 1517 Ottoman conquest of the province. While some of these changes were dramatic, like the systemization of the legal/judicial infrastructure, others represented a continuity with the past centuries of Mamluk rule. The process of this transition is beginning to be studied, but there remains a great deal of scholarship required in order to better understand the nature of this transformation on a social and cultural level. Until now, the vast majority of research regarding Ottoman Egypt is situated in the 18th century, yet the early period both laid the foundation for and set the course for the changes yet to come. This dissertation looks at the ways in which Egypt was changing during the early period with regards to its cultural and intellectual output, especially in terms of material book production. The dissertation explores the nature of these transformations within society broadly but with an eye towards the patterns and trends in book production and ownership in Cairo at the turn of the 17th century.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen Philipp Rückriem: Philipp Rückriem: Stereotypisierung des Nahostkonflikts; Analyse deutscher Dokumentarfilme 1948-2010

    Wie und was dokumentieren deutsche Journalisten und Filmschaffende über den Nahostkonflikt; welche Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten gibt es in DDR- und BRD- Produktionen; wie nehmen deutsche Zuschauer die bebilderten Geschehnisse im israelischen-palästinensischen Konflikt wahr und wie hat sich Darstellung und Wahrnehmung seit 1948 entwickelt?

    Dokumentarfilme spielen eine besondere Rolle für gesellschaftliche Meinungs-bildungsprozesse, da sie als eine Art "Wissens- und Gedächtnisspeicher" (Basaran 2013) fungieren. Sie ermöglichen einen Einblick in die "gesellschaftliche Wahrnehmung und Bewertung von Situationen" (Hißnauer 2011). Qualitative oder quantitative Untersuchungen deutscher Dokumentarfilme über den Nahostkonflikt liegen bisher nicht vor. Die Dissertation soll diese Lücken schließen, indem sie zunächst themenrelevante Filme archiviert und kategorisiert, um anschließend ausgewählte Beispiele zu untersuchen.

    Mithilfe einer kontextualisierten Film- und Fernsehanalyse (Mikos 2010) untersucht die Arbeit sichtbare Phänomene wie u.a. Orientalismus, Antisemitismus, Wiedergutmachungsstrategien und Propaganda des Kalten Krieges. Insbesondere die stereotypisierte Darstellung religiöser Gruppen - des Islams und Judentums - sollen im Hinblick auf "Othering" erforscht werden. Ziel ist es, gesellschaftliche Wahrnehmungen bzw.  Fehlwahrnehmungen (Senghaas 1972) zu hinterfragen und diese Eindrücke zeit(geist)lich einzuordnen und vergleichbar zu machen. Die Dissertation ermöglicht einen neuen wissenschaftlichen Zugang für die Erforschung des Nahostkonflikts und der deutschen Nachkriegsgeschichte durch ihre eigenen filmischen Zeugnisse.

    Das interdisziplinäre  Dissertationsprojekt wird von Prof. Dr. Albrecht Fuess (CNMS) begleitet als auch von von Prof. Dr. Malte Hagener (Institut für Medienwissenschaften) und dem Zentrum für Konfliktforschung der Philipps-Universität Marburg unterstützt.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen Ahmed Sheir: Ahmed Sheir: The Legend of Prester John and its Political Implications on the Conflict between the Muslim East and Latin West (12th -16th centuries)

    It is significant to discuss and analyze the legend and its impact on the military, political and economic events that outlined the history of the world.  The Legend of Prester John was one of the most famous legends in the middle ages. Prester John was an imaginary Christian King, who lived with his people beyond the Muslims and ruled Central Asia, India and finally Ethiopia in the late Middle Ages and early modern history. Many tales reported about Prester John and his kingdom; many alleged letters appeared to promote the miracles and marvels of Prester John, which initiated in 1145. This legend raised to boost the Crusade movement by calming that such legendary Priest-King would come from the Far East to exterminate the Muslims and to defend the City of Jerusalem, especially during the fifth crusade.

     Therefore, This study goes over the history of thought and culture, anthropology and mythology of the Crusades and the relations between the Muslim East and Latin West to examines to what extent did this legend capture the Crusader-Western imagination, and how, in turn, this affected the political, military and peaceful relations with the Muslims through the 12-13th centuries?  Besides, It studies how this legend used to Christianize the Mongols to conduct a mutual alliance against the Ayyubids and Mamelukes during the 13th century. The method and approach of such study are to tracking the imaginative impact of Prester John Legend on the Crusades' course in both Latin and Arabic sources of the 12th & 13th centuries, to find out the historical events associated with the legend of Prester John in both Arabic and Latin sources with depth analysis. How the legend contributed to shaping the Muslim-Crusading conflict and how such Muslim-Latin encounter played a role in fabricating such Legend.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen Wazni Wazni: Wazni Wazni: State - Civil Society; Dynamic of Islamic Women Movement in Germany

    Regarding the relation between state and civil society, it is an important practical question about how far the activities of pressure groups advance or detract from the public interest. This research will try to find out about the dynamics of the Islamic Women Movement in Germany. Germany has the largest Muslim population in Western Europe after France. This study will use the qualitative method of phenomenology approach. Some Islamic movements will be analysed. The topic is also related to some other theories such as globalization, national integration, multiculturalism, pluralism, democracy, social movement, Islamic movement, migration and women’s issues. Government and state could demonstrate more inclusion, and not exclusion, of the Muslim population. Because national integration is pivotal for a state, engagement with Muslim communities would help.

    There is  a new Islamic presence in Europe (including Germany), which is the consequence of a massive and voluntary settlement of millions of Muslims in Western societies. Globalization brought increasing connectedness between places. Trans-societal migration led to the emergence of Diasporas, which in turn caused the de-territorialization of religious values from their traditional local contexts. By deterritorialization, diasporas have become centres of a global transformation of religion; religion undergoes change and somehow adapts to the diaspora. Those who constitute the diaspora community serve as catalysts in transforming the old religions in their civilizational homes and societies of origin.

    So there are many topics in the discourse related to Islam, state and society. But in this study the researcher intends to understand issues about Islamic women’s interest within the Islamic movement because women have a special position from the Islamic point of view. Thus, my research title is State-Civil Society; Dynamic of Islamic Women Movement in Germany.