Main Content



Aktepe, S. C., & Heck, D. W. (2024). Modeling the link between the plausibility of statements and the illusory truth effect. Psyarxiv.

Mayer, M., & Heck, D. W. (2024). Modeling dependent group judgments: A computational model of sequential collaboration. Psyarxiv.

Kloft, M., & Heck, D. W. (2024, June 4). Discriminant validity of interval response formats: Investigating the dimensional structure of interval widths.

Schmidt, O., & Heck, D. W. (2024, April 21). Multinomial Models of the Repetition-Based Truth Effect: Disentangling Processing Fluency and Knowledge.

Grill, M., Kloft, M., Anhäuser, S., & Haberkamp, A. (2024). Evidence for non-linear extinction learning and no influence of intolerance of uncertainty: investigating US expectancies in a VR fear conditioning paradigm.

Siepe, B. S., & Heck, D. W. (2023). Multiverse analysis for dynamic network models: Investigating the influence of plausible alternative modeling choices. Retrieved from

Siepe, B. S., Bartoš, F., Morris, T. P., Boulesteix, A., Heck, D. W., & Pawel, S. (2023). Simulation Studies for Methodological Research in Psychology: A Standardized Template for Planning, Preregistration, and Reporting.

Siepe, B. S., & Heck, D. W. (2023). Bayesian Estimation and Comparison of Idiographic Network Models.

Mayer, M., Heck, D. W., & Mocnik, F. (2022). Using OpenStreetMap as a data source in psychology and the social sciences. PsyArXiv.

Siepe, B., Sander, C., Schultze, M., Kliem, A., Ludwig, S., Hegerl, U., & Reich de Paredes, H. (2022). Temporal dynamics of depressive symptomatology: An idiographic time series analysis applying network models to patients with depressive disorders. PsyArXiv.


In Press

Thielmann, I., Hilbig, B. E., Klein, S. A., Seidl, A., & Heck, D. W. (in press). Cheating to benefit others? On the relation between Honesty-Humility and prosocial lies. Journal of Personality. 


Kloft, M., Snijder, J., & Heck, D. W. (2024). Measuring the variability of personality traits with interval responses: Psychometric properties of the dual-range slider response format. Behavior Research Methods.

Berkhout, S. W., Haaf, J. M., Gronau, Q. F., Heck, D. W., & Wagenmakers, E. (2024). A tutorial on Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis in JASP. Behavior Research Methods, 56, 1260–1282.

Schmidt, O. & Heck, D.W. (2024). The relevance of syntactic complexity for truth judgments: A registered report. Consciousness and Cognition, 117, 103623.

Schnuerch, M., Heck, D. W., & Erdfelder, E. (2024). Waldian t tests: Sequential Bayesian t tests with controlled error probabilities. Psychological Methods, 29, 99–116.

Mayer, M., & Heck, D. W. (2024). Sequential collaboration: The accuracy of dependent, incremental judgments. Decision, 11, 212–237.


Erdfelder, E., Nagel, J., Heck, D. W., & Petras, N. (2023). Uncovering null effects in null fields: The case of homeopathy. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology.

Kirchner, L., Kloft, M., Arias Martín, B. et al. (2023). Measuring dysfunctional interpersonal beliefs: validation of the Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale among a heterogeneous German-speaking sample. BMC Psychiatry 23, 702.

Kloft, M., Hartmann, R., Voss, A., & Heck, D. W. (2023). The Dirichlet Dual Response Model: An Item Response Model for Continuous Bounded Interval Responses. Psychometrika.

Mayer, M., Broß, M., & Heck, D. (2023). Expertise determines frequency and accuracy of contributions in sequential collaboration. Judgment and Decision Making, 18, E2.

Heck, D. W., Boehm, U., Böing-Messing, F., Bürkner, P., Derks, K., Dienes, Z., Fu, Q., Gu, X., Karimova, D., Kiers, H., Klugkist, I., Kuiper, R. M., Lee, M. D., Leenders, R., Leplaa, H. J., Linde, M., Ly, A., Meijerink-Bosman, M., Moerbeek, M., Mulder, J., Palfi, B., Schönbrodt, F., Tendeiro, J., van den Bergh, D., van Lissa, C. J., van Ravenzwaaij, D., Vanpaemel, W., Wagenmakers, E., Williams, D. R., Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, M., & Hoijtink, H. (2023). A review of applications of the Bayes factor in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 28, 558–579.

Heck, D. W., & Bockting, F. (2023). Benefits of Bayesian model averaging for mixed-effects modeling. Computational Brain & Behavior, 6, 35–49.

Laukenmann, R., Erdfelder, E., Heck, D. W., & Moshagen, M. (2023). Cognitive processes underlying the weapon identification task: A comparison of models accounting for both response frequencies and response times. Social Cognition, 41, 137–164.

Mayer, M., & Heck, D. W. (2023). Cultural consensus theory for two-dimensional location judgments. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 113, 102742.

Schmidt, O., Erdfelder, E., & Heck, D. W. (2023). How to develop, test, and extend multinomial processing tree models: A tutorial. Psychological Methods, 28, 558–579. 

van Doorn, J., Haaf, J. M., Stefan, A. M., Wagenmakers, E., Cox, G. E., Davis-Stober, C., Heathcote, A., Heck, D. W., Kalish, M., Kellen, D., Matzke, D., Morey, R. D., Nicenboim, B., van Ravenzwaaij, D., Rouder, J., Schad, D., Shiffrin, R., Singmann, H., Vasishth, S., Verıssimo, J., Bockting, F., Chandramouli, S., Dunn, J. C., Gronau, Q. F., Linde, M., McMullin, S. D., Navarro, D., Schnuerch, M., Yadav, H., & Aust, F. (2023). Bayes factors for mixed models: A discussion. Computational Brain & Behavior, 6, 140–158.


Kaufmann, T. H., Lilleholt, L., Böhm, R., Zettler, I., & Heck, D. W. (2022). Sensitive attitudes and adherence to recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic: Comparing direct and indirect questioning techniques. Personality and Individual Differences, 190, 111525. Preprint

Malejka, S., Heck, D. W., & Erdfelder, E. (2022). Recognition-memory models and ranking tasks: The importance of auxiliary assumptions for tests of the two-high-threshold model. Journal of Memory and Language, 127, 104356.

Hartmann, R., Meyer-Grant, C. G., & Klauer, K. C. (2022). An adaptive rejection sampler for sampling from the Wiener diffusion model. Behavior Research Methods.


Bröder, A., Platzer, C., & Heck, D. W. (2021). Salience effects in memory-based decisions: an improved replication. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 33, 64–76.

Gronau, Q. F., Heck, D. W., Berkhout, S. W., Haaf, J. M., & Wagenmakers, E. (2021). A primer on Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 4, 1–19. Preprint

Hartmann, R., & Klauer, K. C. (2021). Partial derivatives for the first-passage time distribution in Wiener diffusion models. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 103, 102550.

Heck, D. W. (2021). Assessing the ‘paradox’ of converging evidence by modeling the joint distribution of individual differences: Comment on Davis-Stober and Regenwetter (2019). Psychological Review, 128, 1187–1196. Preprint


Bott, F. M., Heck, D. W., & Meiser, T. (2020). Parameter validation in hierarchical MPT models by functional dissociation with continuous covariates: An application to contingency inference. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 98, 102388.

Hartmann, R., Johannsen, L., & Klauer, K. C. (2020). rtmpt: An R package for fitting response-time extended multinomial processing tree models. Behavior Research Methods, 52(3), 1313–1338.

Hartmann, R., & Klauer, K. C. (2020). Extending RT-MPTs to enable equal process times. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 96, 102340.

Heck, D. W., & Erdfelder, E. (2020). Benefits of response time-extended multinomial processing tree models: A reply to Starns (2018). Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 27, 571–580.

Heck, D. W., & Noventa, S. (2020). Representing probabilistic models of knowledge space theory by multinomial processing tree models. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 96, 102329.

Heck, D. W., Seiling, L., & Bröder, A. (2020). The love of large numbers revisited: A coherence model of the popularity bias. Cognition, 195, 104069.

Heck, D. W., Thielmann, I., Klein, S. A., & Hilbig, B. E. (2020). On the limited generality of air pollution and anxiety as causal determinants of unethical behavior: Commentary on Lu, Lee, Gino, & Galinsky (2018). Psychological Science, 31, 741–747.

Jobst, L. J., Heck, D. W., & Moshagen, M. (2020). A comparison of correlation and regression approaches for multinomial processing tree models. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 98, 102400.

Klein, S. A., Thielmann, I., Hilbig, B. E., & Heck, D. W. (2020). On the robustness of the association between Honesty-Humility and dishonest behavior for varying incentives. Journal of Research in Personality, 88, 104006.

Kroneisen, M., & Heck, D. W. (2020). Interindividual differences in the sensitivity for consequences, moral norms and preferences for inaction: Relating personality to the CNI model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 46, 1013–1026.

Schnuerch, M., Erdfelder, E., & Heck, D. W. (2020). Sequential hypothesis tests for multinomial processing tree models. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 95, 102326.


Arnold, N. R., Heck, D. W., Bröder, A., Meiser, T., & Boywitt, D. C. (2019). Testing hypotheses about binding in context memory with a hierarchical multinomial modeling approach: A preregistered study. Experimental Psychology, 66, 239-251.

Gronau, Q. F., Wagenmakers, E., Heck, D. W., & Matzke, D. (2019). A simple method for comparing complex models: Bayesian model comparison for hierarchical multinomial processing tree models using warp-III bridge sampling. Psychometrika, 84, 261–284. Preprint

Erdfelder, E., & Heck, D. W. (2019). Detecting evidential value and p-hacking with the p-curve tool: A word of caution. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 227, 249–260.

Heck, D. W. (2019). A caveat on the Savage-Dickey density ratio: The case of computing Bayes factors for regression parameters. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 72, 316-333. Preprint

Heck, D. W. (2019). Accounting for estimation uncertainty and shrinkage in Bayesian within-subject intervals: A comment on Nathoo, Kilshaw, and Masson (2018). Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 88, 27-31. Preprint

Heck, D. W., & Davis-Stober, C. P. (2019). Multinomial models with linear inequality constraints: Overview and improvements of computational methods for Bayesian inference. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 91, 70-87. Preprint

Heck, D. W., & Erdfelder, E. (2019). Maximizing the expected information gain of cognitive modeling via design optimization. Computational Brain & Behavior, 2, 202–209. Preprint

Heck, D. W., Overstall, A., Gronau, Q. F., & Wagenmakers, E. (2019). Quantifying uncertainty in transdimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo using discrete Markov models. Statistics & Computing, 29, 631-643. Preprint

Klein, S. A., Heck, D. W., Reese, G., & Hilbig, B. E. (2019). On the relationship between Openness to Experience, political orientation, and pro-environmental behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 138, 344–348.

Kroneisen, M., & Heck, D. W. (2019). Interindividual differences in the sensitivity for consequences, moral norms and preferences for inaction: Relating personality to the CNI model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

Schild, C., Heck, D. W., Ścigała, K., & Zettler, I. (2019). Revisiting REVISE: (Re)Testing unique and combined effects of REminding, VIsibility, and SElf-engagement manipulations on cheating behavior. Journal of Economic Psychology.

Ścigała, K., Schild, C., Heck, D. W., & Zettler, I. (2019). Who deals with the devil: Interdependence, personality, and corrupted collaboration. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 10, 1019-1027.

Starns, J. J., Cataldo, A. M., Rotello, C. M., Annis, J., Aschenbrenner, A., Bröder, A., Cox, G., Criss, A., Curl, R. A., Dobbins, I. G., Dunn, J., Enam, T., Evans, N. J., Farrell, S., Fraundorf, S. H., Gronlund, S. D., Heathcote, A., Heck, D. W., Hicks, J. L., ... Wilson, J. (2019). Assessing theoretical conclusions with blinded inference to investigate a potential inference crisis. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 2, 335–349.

Thoemmes, F., & Lemmer, G. (2019). Mediation analysis revisited again. Australasian Marketing Journal. 27, 52-56.

Wagner, U., & Lemmer, G. (2019). Extremistische Gewalt – ein Sozio-Psycho Modell zur Erklärung, Intervention und Prävention. Praxis der Rechtspsychologie, 29, 5-22.


Glombiewski, J.A., Holzapfel, S., Riecke, J., Vlaeyen, J., De Jong, J., Lemmer, G., & Rief, W. (2018). Exposure and CBT for chronic back pain: an RCT on differential efficacy and optimal length of treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 533-545. DOI: 10.1037/ccp0000298

Heck, D. W., Arnold, N. R., & Arnold, D. (2018). TreeBUGS: An R package for hierarchical multinomial-processing-tree modeling. Behavior Research Methods, 50, 264-284.

Heck, D. W., Erdfelder, E., & Kieslich, P. J. (2018). Generalized processing tree models: Jointly modeling discrete and continuous variables. Psychometrika, 83, 893–918.

Heck, D. W., Hoffmann, A., & Moshagen, M. (2018). Detecting nonadherence without loss in efficiency: A simple extension of the crosswise model. Behavior Research Methods, 50, 1895-1905.

Heck, D. W., & Moshagen, M. (2018). RRreg: An R package for correlation and regression analyses of randomized response data. Journal of Statistical Software, 85(2), 1-29.

Heck, D. W., Thielmann, I., Moshagen, M., & Hilbig, B. E. (2018). Who lies? A large-scale reanalysis linking basic personality traits to unethical decision making. Judgment and Decision Making, 13, 356–371.

Miller, R., Scherbaum, S., Heck, D. W., Goschke, T., & Enge, S. (2018). On the relation between the (censored) shifted Wald and the Wiener distribution as measurement models for choice response times. Applied Psychological Measurement, 42, 116–135.

Plieninger, H., & Heck, D. W. (2018). A new model for acquiescence at the interface of psychometrics and cognitive psychology. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 53, 633–654.


Gronau, Q. F., Erp, S. V., Heck, D. W., Cesario, J., Jonas, K. J., & Wagenmakers, E. (2017). A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: the case of felt power. Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology, 2, 123-138.

Heck, D. W., & Erdfelder, E. (2017). Linking process and measurement models of recognition-based decisions. Psychological Review, 124, 442-471.

Heck, D. W., & Gronau, Q. F. (2017). metaBMA: Bayesian model averaging for random- and fixed-effects meta-analysis.

Heck, D. W., Hilbig, B. E., & Moshagen, M. (2017). From information processing to decisions: Formalizing and comparing probabilistic choice models. Cognitive Psychology, 96, 26-40.

Klein, S. A., Hilbig, B. E., & Heck, D. W. (2017). Which is the greater good? A social dilemma paradigm disentangling environmentalism and cooperation. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 53, 40-49.

Lemmer, G. & Gollwitzer, M. (2017). The "true" indirect effect won't (always) stand up: When and why reverse mediation testing fails. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 69, 144-149.

Thanhäuser, M., Lemmer, G., de Girolamo, G., & Christiansen, H. (2017). Do preventive interventions for children of mentally ill parents work? Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 30, 283-299.


Heck, D. W., & Erdfelder, E. (2016). Extending multinomial processing tree models to measure the relative speed of cognitive processes. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23, 1440-1465.

Heck, D. W., & Wagenmakers, E. (2016). Adjusted priors for Bayes factors involving reparameterized order constraints. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 73, 110-116. Preprint

Thielmann, I., Heck, D. W., & Hilbig, B. E. (2016). Anonymity and incentives: An investigation of techniques to reduce socially desirable responding in the Trust Game. Judgment and Decision Making, 11, 527-536.


Erdfelder, E., Castela, M., Michalkiewicz, M., & Heck, D. W. (2015). The advantages of model fitting compared to model simulation in research on preference construction. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 140.

Heck, D. W., Wagenmakers, E., & Morey, R. D. (2015). Testing order constraints: Qualitative differences between Bayes factors and normalized maximum likelihood. Statistics & Probability Letters, 105, 157-162. Preprint

Lemmer, G., Gollwitzer, M., Schiller, E.-A., Strohmeier, D, Banse, R., & Spiel, C. (2015). On the psychometric properties of the Aggressiveness-IAT for children and adolescents. Aggressive Behavior, 41, 84-95.

Lemmer, G. & Wagner, U. (2015). Can we really reduce ethnic prejudice outside the lab? A meta-analysis of direct and indirect contact interventions. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 152-168.


Asbrock, F., Lemmer, G., Becker, J., & Koller, J., & Wagner, U. (2014). ‘Who are these foreigners anyway?’ – The content of the term foreigner and its Impact on prejudice. SAGE Open, 4, 1-8.

Fischer, S., Lemmer, G., Gollwitzer, M., & Nater, U. (2014). Stress and resilience in functional somatic syndromes – a structural equation modeling approach. PLoS One, 9, e111214.

Gollwitzer, M., Christ, O., & Lemmer, G. (2014). Individual differences make a difference: On the use and the psychometric properties of difference scores in social psychology. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 673-682.

Heck, D. W., Moshagen, M., & Erdfelder, E. (2014). Model selection by minimum description length: Lower-bound sample sizes for the Fisher information approximation. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 60, 29–34. Preprint

Platzer, C., Bröder, A., & Heck, D. W. (2014). Deciding with the eye: How the visually manipulated accessibility of information in memory influences decision behavior. Memory & Cognition, 42, 595-608.

Schwinger, M., Wirthwein, L., Lemmer, G., & Steinmayr. R. (2014). Academic self-handicapping and achievement: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106, 744-761.