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Evelyn Korn, Non-digital competencies for a digital world – Why higher education needs Humanities and STEM disciplines, comes out in Amerikastudien/American Studies.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    Forecasts on the future of the workplace abound. Their predictions vary from a „smart“, network-based and still human-centered organisation of work to scenarios that see artificial intelligence and algorithms taking over repetitive as well as complex jobs by 2030. Either way, questions arise regarding the set of skills that will be necessary for successful participation in the workplace and what role higher education will play in shaping and providing these skills.
    Currently, demand for graduates from the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) disciplines is high in politics and industry. In addition, the workforce also needs people who are able to harness technological developments for the economy as well as for the society.
    Think tanks have described the skills necessary to establish this connection between technological progress and societal needs. They show that skills from the humanities and the social sciences are as necessary as technological abilities because future members of the workplace - and, even more important, responsible members of the society - need to contextualize technological developments. Thus, the challenge will be to combine digitalization in higher education with critical thinking, creativity, problem solving, communication, and social and ethical reflections.

Hercher, Sophia und Evelyn Korn, Studentisches Peer-Review als Instrument von Lernbegleitung und Bewertung,  comes out in Neues Handbuch Hochschullehre.

Auriol, Emmanuelle and Stefanie Brilon (2018), Nonprofits in the Field: An Economic Analysis of Peer Monitoring and Sabotage. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Volume 89, Issue 1 March 2018, p. 157-174.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    Two types of intrinsically motivated workers are considered: good workers care about the mission of an organization, whereas bad workers derive pleasure from destructive behavior. Compared to the case with only good workers, the mission‐oriented sector has to resort to higher monitoring to deal with the threat of sabotage. When standard monitoring is not possible, peer monitoring might deter bad workers from entering the nonprofit sector but reduces output due to free riding and because workers require higher compensation to work in teams. Nonprofits implement peer monitoring only if the expected damage that bad workers can inflict is larger than the loss of productivity due to teamwork. For senior staff with high reservation utility, they turn a blind eye on serious sabotage if the likelihood of hiring a bad worker is perceived as small. But they almost systematically implement peer monitoring for junior staff.

Beblo, Miriam and Evelyn Korn (2018), Mütterliche Erwerbsbeteiligung – eine Überzeugungsfrage?, Sozialer Fortschritt 67 (7), p. 525-548, 2018.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    Germany has a large number of family policy measures. Whether these measures enhance or hinder the labor market participation of mothers has been subject of the academic as well as the political discussion. In our paper we highlight yet another aspect of the institutional context in which participation decisions are made: societal attitudes toward the reconciliation of parenthood (in particular motherhood) and gainful employment are highly influential for the employment possibilities and preferences of women. We present a theoretical frame that associates these attitudes and participation decisions and we illustrate empirically how attitudes have developed in the recent history of the German separation and reunification.

Crowley, Philip, William Harris und Evelyn Korn (2017), Optimal Sex Allocation under Pollen Limitation, Theoretical Ecology 10, p. 417–431.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    Most flowering plants are simultaneous hermaphrodites. Within species and even within local populations, sex allocation is usually highly plastic. Here, we link pollen sufficiency to the size of pollen-exchanging groups (i.e., pollen neighborhoods) and to pollen transfer efficiency, using an individual-based game-theoretic framework to determine the stable distribution of sex allocation that does not require the unrealistic assumption of infinitely large, panmictic populations. In the absence of selfing, we obtain the novel result that pollen limitation destabilizes hermaphroditism and favors separate sexes, whereas hermaphroditism remains stable without pollen limitation. With mixed mating, hermaphroditism is stable except when the fitness value of selfed offspring is less than half that of outcrossed offspring (i.e., strong inbreeding depression). In that case, the size of pollen neighborhoods, pollen transfer efficiencies, and the relative fitness of selfed offspring determine whether separate sexes or hermaphroditism is the stable outcome. The model thus predicts that separate sexes can derive from either of two ancestral states: obligate outcrossing under pollen limitation, or mixed mating (competing self-fertilization) under severe inbreeding depression. It also predicts conditions under which variance in sex-allocation among hermaphrodites within pollen exchanging groups along a gradient of pollen limitation can range from high (dioecy) to near zero (equal proportions of male and female investment).

Korn, Evelyn (2016), (Neue) Institutionenökonomik und ihre Anwendung auf die Alte Welt. in: Kerstin Droß-Krüpe, Sabine Föllinger, Kai Ruffing (Hrsgg.), Antike Wirtschaft und ihre kulturelle Prägung/ The Cultural Shaping of the Ancient Economy (Philippika 98), Wiesbaden.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    The claim that “institutions matter” is at the core of the New Institutional Economics. This field of economic theory assumes that both the process and the result of any (economic) transaction depend on two ingredients: On the one hand, an individual as a decision-making unit and, on the other hand, a set of exogenous boundaries as well as humanly devised norms and rules that constrain the individual decision making. These latter constraints have been named “institu­tions” by Douglas North who stressed the fact that these norms that regulate human interaction are themselves the result of a social process. He showed that it is worthwhile to understand the development of institutions as a result of individual decision making that is constrained by insti­tutions – and started a new subfield of economic research.
    This paper explains the concept of institutions as a frame for individual decision making. By use of market exchange and land property rights as examples of interactive economic decisions it delineates the effect that different sets of institutions can have on the result of interactions. That way it develops the methodological thread that links the results from the different research fields in the study of the Ancient World presented in this collected volume.

Korn, Evelyn and Jürgen Lorenz (2016), Eigentumsrechte als ordnendes Element der hethitischen Wirtschaft. in: Kerstin Droß-Krüpe, Sabine Föllinger, Kai Ruffing (Hrsgg.), Antike Wirtschaft und ihre kulturelle Prägung/ The Cultural Shaping of the Ancient Economy (Philippika 98), Wiesbaden.

Föllinger, Sabine and Evelyn Korn (2016), Glück und Ökonomie - ein interdisziplinäres Projekt zur Bedeutung von Institutionen bei Platon, in: Sabine Föllinger, Heide Froning, Gilbert Gronig, Hermann Jungraithmayer, Volker Mammitzsch (Hrsg.) Die Marburger Gelehrten-Gesellschaft. Universitas litterarum nach 1968, Berlin, 337-362.

Korn, Evelyn (2016), Cloth for Wheat or Cloth for Cloth? Ricardo and Krugman on Ancient International Trade, in: Kerstin Droß-Krüpe und Marie-Louise Nosch (eds) Textiles, Trade and Theories - From the Ancient Near East to the Mediterranean, Ugarit-Verlag.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    The chapter presents a way of connecting economic research methods to the studies of the Ancient World. It displays fundamental economic concepts to explain international trade and shows in an exemplary way how these concepts can be applied to the analysis of historical contexts.
    The theories can, in particular, provide a unifying framework for observations that seem to be contradictory at first glance. In addition, and even more important than providing explanations for observations that have been well documented and explained within other contexts, it aims at triggering the formulation of new research questions. In particular, the exposition of Heckscher-Ohlin‘s and Krugman‘s modelling approach to provide lines along which material from the Ancient World can be sorted in new ways.

Crowley, Philip H.,  Sean M. Ehlman, Evelyn Korn and Andrew Sih (2016), Dealing with stochastic environmental variation in space and time: bet hedging by generalist, specialist and diversified strategies, Theoretical Ecology,9, p. 149-161.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    Building on previous work, we derive an optimization model for a two-state stochastic environment and evaluate the fitnesses of five reproductive strategies across generations. To do this, we characterize spatiotemporal variation and define grain (=patch) size as the scale of fitness autocorrelation. Fitness functions of environmental condition are Gaussian. The strategies include two specialists on each of the environmental conditions; two generalists that each fare equally well under both conditions, but one (a conservative bet hedger) optimizes the shape of the fitness function; and a diversified bet hedger producing an optimal mix of the two specialists within individual broods. When the environment is primarily in one of the two states, the specialist on that state achieves the highest fitness. In the more interesting situation where the two environments are equally prevalent in the long term, with low-moderate environmental variation, a generalist strategy (that copes with both states well) does best. Higher variation favors diversified bet hedgers, or surprisingly, specialists, depending mainly on whether spatial or temporal variation predominates. These strategies reduce variance in fitness and optimize the distribution of offspring among patches differently: specialists by spreading offspring among many independently varying patches, while diversified bet hedgers put all offspring into a few patches or a single patch. We distinguish features consistent with strategies like diversified bet hedgers that spread risk in time from features linked to strategies like specialists that spread risk in space. Finally, we present testable hypotheses arising from this study and suggest directions for future work.

Falk, Thomas, Dirk Lohmann and Nadege Azebaze (2016), Congruence of appropriation and provision in collective water provision in Central Namibia, International Journal of the Commons, 10(1), p. 71–118.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    Achieving cooperation in natural resource management is always a challenge when incentives exist for an individual to maximise her short term benefits at the cost of a group. We study a public good social dilemma in water infrastructure provision on land reform farms in Namibia. In the context of the Namibian land reform, arbitrarily mixed groups of livestock farmers have to share the operation and maintenance of water infrastructure. Typically, water is mainly used for livestock production, and livestock numbers are subject to high fluctuations due to the given environmental conditions. Our paper assesses how alternative payment systems with differing congruence of provision and appropriation support the cooperation in the group given the ever-changing equilibria. In a first step, we conducted an exploratory overview of the social-ecological system of central Namibian land reform projects. The Social Ecological System (SES) Framework served as a guideline for this assessment (Ostrom 2009). Taking the complexity of the cooperation situation into account, in the second step we designed a role-play that is based on a social-ecological simulation model. The role-play simulates the real-life decision situations of land reform beneficiaries wherein equilibria are permanently changing. This approach helped us to not only better understand the cooperation challenges of Namibian land reform beneficiaries, but also supported stakeholders in their decision making and institution building. Our study provides evidence to support that land reform beneficiaries increase their contributions as they own more livestock and as other group members increase their payments. Nevertheless, only groups with relatively homogeneous livestock endowments manage to agree on payment rules. Interestingly, the dominant rule is an “equal payment per farmer” and not a “payment per head of livestock”, though the latter would imply a higher congruence of provision and appropriation.

Robeck, Volker (2015), Professional Cycling and the Fight against Doping, International Journal of Sport and Finance (IJSF), 10 (3).

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    Doping seems to be well organized and inherent in the system of professional cycling. This paper provides a theoretical approach, by using a multi-task (training and doping) principal-agent (team manager and cyclist) model, to illustrate the information asymmetry and conflicting objectives between both actors. Three settings are used to represent different situations in which the fight against doping takes place with varying intensity. The comparison of the equilibria in each setting reveals the influence of the fight against doping on the team members’ behavior. The analysis shows that team managers are interested in doping, and that current anti-doping institutions cannot suppress the abuse of forbidden drugs.

Korn, Evelyn, Stephan Meisenzahl, and Johannes Ziesecke (2015), Social Coordination, Self-Image, and Cooperation in Investment games, Applied Economics and Finance, 2 (3).

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstratAbstrat

    Why do people cooperate in social groups? This paper provides experimental evidence that the fear of losing the self-image as a norm-compliant player might be one explaining factor. To that end an investment game with a public-goods character is played in different institutional setups that vary in the possibility to build reputation as well as in the communication of potential social norms. In addition, it provides a model that explains participants' decisions based on an extension of the neoclassical model. It covers a trade-off between pure wealth maximization and the minimization of damage to the self-image of being compliant. Experimental results show that this tradeoff is important in those treatments that allow for reputation building. We conclude that the wish to “do the right thing” can enhance cooperation in a socially stable environment.

Korn, Evelyn (2015), Kooperatives Verhalten in der Ökonomik: Theorie und experimentelle Evidenz, in: Diego De Brasi und Sabine Föllinger (Hrsgg.), Anthropologie in Antike und Gegenwart: Biologische und philosophische Entwürfe vom Menschen. Verlag Karl Alber, p. 329-354.

Korn, Evelyn and Jürgen Lorenz (2014), Staatsverträge der Bronzezeit - Lizenzen zur Bereicherung?, Welt des Orients, 44. Jahrgang, p. 56-74.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    In the 14th and 13th centuries BC, the Hittite empire participates in a network of contracts between the Great Powers of that time. This paper puts these contractual relations into a bigger context that also accounts for the Hittites' relations to their Western neighbours on the Aegean coast as well as to their Northern and Syrian neighbours. It shows that being a strong opponent of the other Great Powers like Assyria and Egypt secured an exclusive sphere of influence. Exploiting the less powerful neighbours, however, was a necessary condition for maintaining the political and economical power that ensured the position of the Hittite empire among the Great Powers. The Hittite strategy consisted of a number of elements: A superior military technology and strategy, a centralized administrative structure that allocated resources as well as revenues to balance internal political interests, and a - military-backed - deportation strategy that helped to fuel the labour intensive agricultural technology.We provide amodel of strategic interaction between the Hittites and their neighbours that also explains the balance of interests which lent stability to the system.

Korn, Evelyn and Matthias Wrede (2014), Working Mums and Informal Care Givers: The Anticipation Effect, The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy.14 (2), p. 473-498.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    Fertility and the provision of long-term care are connected by an aspect that has not received attention so far: both are time consuming activities that can be produced within the household or bought at the market and are, thus, connected through the intertemporal budget constraint of the household that accounts for time and money. This paper models that link and analyzes the effect of intervention in the long-term-care market on female labor-market related decisions. It shows that women’s fertility and their labor supply when young are affected by such policies. The overall effect can be decomposed into an opportunity-cost effect and a consumption-smoothing effect that each impact fertility as well as labor supply in opposite directions. Using survey data, the paper provides some evidence that in the member states of the European Union the consumption-smoothing effect is dominant.

Robeck, Volker (2014), Professional Cycling and the Fight against Doping.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    Doping seems to be well-organized and inherent in the system of professional cycling. This paper provides a theoretical approach, by using a multi-task (training and doping) principal-agent (team manager and cyclist) model, to illustrate the information asymmetry and conflicting objectives between both actors. Three settings are used to represent different situations in which the fight against doping takes place with varying intensity. The comparison of the equilibria in eachsetting reveals the influence of the fight against doping on the team members’ behaviour. The analysis shows that team managers are interested in doping, and that current anti-doping institutions cannot suppress the abuse of forbidden drugs.

Korn, Evelyn and Johannes Ziesecke (2013), Economic Decisions and Institutional Boundaries, in: Philip H. Crowley and Thomas R. Zentall (eds.), Comparative Decision Making, Oxford University Press.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    This chapter introduces decision making from a microeconomic perspective. The analysis is based on the assumption that individuals aim at maximizing their wellbeing. However, the set of options to reach that personal objective is limited by exogenous factors. These boundaries are modeled within the general framework of so-called institutions, that is, rules that define individual choice options. We show how adaptation to institutions is part of the decision-making process. In addition, the chapter shows that the interplay between individual interests and exogenous factors cannot only be used to analyze economic questions but can also be extended to other social sciences and the humanities as well as to sociobiology.

Domptail, Stephanie, Ernst-August Nuppenau, Nadege Azebaze, Lawrence Dereck Brown, Thomas Falk, Manfred Finckh, Laura Marlene Große, Benjamin Kowalski, Michael Pröpper, Marion Stellmes and Jörg Overmann (2013), Using trade-offs and synergies in ecosystem services for resource management. Biodiversity & Ecology 5, p. 185–193.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    Trade-off analysis can be defined as an approach to natural resource management that incorporates multiple objectives for the management of a given area (and its resources) within a decision framework. The analysis of trade-off or synergetic relationships among multiple objectives for a given system is essential for the implementation of interdisciplinary (ecological, social and economic) research results into policy making. While research concerning trade-offs in ecosystem services (ESS) is still nascent, several types of trade-offs/synergies have already been investigated, including spatial trade-offs in the provision of ESSs, temporal trade-offs, trade-offs related to stakeholder values, as well as trade-offs between causally related ESSs (such as provisioning and regulating or supporting services), and trade-offs between economic, social and ecological objectives in land use. The last two types of trade-offs address directly the issue of sustainability. Methods of investigation aim at (1) the quantification of trade-offs/synergies using an array of tools borrowed from modeling, behavioral economics, econometrics, etc.… or/and (2) at ranking ESSs via e.g. multi-criteria analyses (MCA). The Future Okavango (TFO) research project intends to incorporate trade-off analysis in its assessment of ESS in order to support management decisions at the scale of the river basin in the Okavango region. It uses a variety of methods which complement one another and enable the incorporation of the concept of ESS into decision making. A description of the ESSs compared using trade-off analysis, as well as of the methods used and their interrelations constitutes the second part of the paper.

Herold, Björn, Laura M. Große, Stephanie Domptail, Donald L. Kgathi, Thomas Falk, Nadege Azebaze and Benjamin Kowalski (2013), Livelihood diversification in a rural community of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. - Results from a Socio-Economic Baseline Survey. Biodiversity & Ecology 5, p. 363–377.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    Due to a special mixture of influencing factors and basic conditions, livelihood strategies in the village of Seronga are highly diversified. The remote location of Seronga at the northern edge of the Okavango Delta distances the population from urban centers and modernity. Therefore, agricultural production and livestock keeping remain the main basis of subsistence for the majority of the population. At the same time, manifold connections to bigger cities, the presence of tourism and increasing market integration bridge this gap, transforming desires, aspirations, and claims. Consequently, the need to adapt livelihood strategies towards cash income generation emerges. In this paper we combine qualitative methods and new quantitative data from the “The Future Okavango” (TFO) Socio-Economic Baseline Survey (SEBS) to highlight the composition of livelihood strategies in the community of Seronga. Using the Sustainable Livelihood Framework we draw special attention to transformation tendencies, to the socio-economic stratification of livelihood strategies, and to the resulting differences in vulnerability and sustainability for the households of Seronga.

Kowalski, Benjamin, Nadege Azebaze, Laura M. Große, Stephanie Domptail and Michael Pröpper (2013), Mashare - The People. Biodiversity & Ecology 5, p. 121-128.

Korn, Evelyn and Volker Robeck (2013), The role of sports physicians in doping: a note on incentives, MAGKS Working paper in Economics 17-2013.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    How to ban the fraudulent use of performance-enhancing drugs isan issue in all professional – and increasingly in amateur – sports. Themain effort in enforcing a “clean sport” has concentrated on provingan abuse of performance-enhancing drugs and on imposing sanctionson teams and athletes.An investigation started by Freiburg university hospital against two ofits employees who had been working as physicians for a professional cy-cling team has drawn attention to another group of actors: physicians.It reveals a multi-layered contractual relations between sports teams,physicians, hospitals, and sports associations that provided stringin-centives for the two doctors to support the use performance-enhancingdrugs. This paper argues that these misled incentives are not singularbut a structural part of modern sports caused by cross effects betweenthe labor market for sports medicine specialists (especially if they areresearchers) and for professional athletes.

Korn, Evelyn, Stephan Meisenzahl, and Johannes Ziesecke (2013), How and when can strategic thinking enhance cooperation?, MAGKS Discussion Paper 16-2013.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    Conventional wisdom has it that economic training and educationtends to produce less cooperative people – where cooperation meansfollowing group-oriented goals. This issue has attracted particularattention in discussions of the current economic crisis where it wasasked if increasing marketization of societies has created an environ-ment encouraging amoral selfish behavior of financial intermediariesand other economic agents. We provide some evidence against thisclaim with the help of an experiment, using an investment game witha public-goods character. Modest guidance of strategic abilities in-creases the degree of cooperation if the institutional setting permitsreputation building. We thus conclude that economic practice canenhance cooperation in a socially stable environment.

Edlund Lena and Evelyn Korn (2008), Reply to "The evolution of hermaphroditism" by Matthew S. Grober and Edmund W. Rodgers, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 251, S. 193.

Korn, Evelyn (2008), Zerstört der Sozialstaat die Familie?, Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Vol. 9 (2), p. 156-172.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    German Basic Law sees „marriage” and „family” as core elements of society – assuming that families are those units that by bearing and raising children provide a society's future and that marriages are fundamental for families. Accordingly, all social policy measures should support (or at least not disadvantage) marriages and families. This article shows that supporting marriages and supporting families are conflicting aims. It shows that measures which are intended to support families in raising children induce adaptive behaviour of (potential) parents that erodes marriage as an institution. In consequence, female incentives to bear children might be reduced by measures that were intended to augment them.

Edlund, Lena and Evelyn Korn (2007), Hermaphroditism: What’s not to like?, The Journal of Theoretical Biology, Vol. 245, April, p. 520-527.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    Hermaphroditism is rare and phylogenically in decline among animal species. The evolutionary basis for this development is not well understood. This paper focusses on self-incompatible simultaneous hermaphroditism in animals. It proposes that such hermaphroditism is not stable in sufficiently heterogeneous populations, suggesting a possible reason for why hermaphroditism is rare among evolved animal species. The argument turns on the Bateman principle, namely that male reproductive success (RS) is limited by partner availability, while female RS is not. We show that: low-quality individuals do better if female; secondary sexual differentiation may be important for understanding the existence of males; and that hermaphroditic mating is reciprocal. Reciprocity may be key to understanding promiscuity and attendant phenomena such as cryptic female choice, sperm competition and love darts—common features of hermaphroditic mating. We also argue that hermaphrodites are especially vulnerable to male violence, suggesting a reason for the rarity of trioecy. Finally, we propose that external fertilization, and the scope for streaking, may be one reason fish are the only simultaneously hermaphroditic vertebrates.

Edlund, Lena and Evelyn Korn (2002), A Theory of Prostitution, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 110, No. 1, p. 181-214.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    Prostitution is low‐skill, labor intensive, female, and well paid. This paper proposes a marriage market explanation to this puzzle. If a prostitute compromises her marriage market prospects, she will have to be compensated for forgone marriage market opportunities. We discuss the link between poverty and prostitution and show that prostitution may decrease with male income if wives and prostitutes are drawn from the same pool of women. We point to the role of male sex ratios, and males in transit, in sustaining high levels of prostitution, and we discuss possible reasons for its low reputation and implications for marriage patterns.

Korn, Evelyn (2000), On the Formation of Family Structures, Public Choice, Vol. 105, p. 357-372.

  • Inhalt ausklappen Inhalt einklappen AbstractAbstract

    Prostitution is low‐skill, labor intensive, female, and well paid. This paper proposes a marriage market explanation to this puzzle. If a prostitute compromises her marriage market prospects, she will have to be compensated for forgone marriage market opportunities. We discuss the link between poverty and prostitution and show that prostitution may decrease with male income if wives and prostitutes are drawn from the same pool of women. We point to the role of male sex ratios, and males in transit, in sustaining high levels of prostitution, and we discuss possible reasons for its low reputation and implications for marriage patterns.