Erhard Bremer bei PubMed & Google Scholar


149. Czech L, Gertzen C, Smits SHJ, Bremer E (2022) Guilty by association: importers, expoerters and MscS-type mechanosensitive channels encoded in biosynthetic gene clusters for the stress-protectant ectoine. Env.Microbiol. (in press) doi: 10.1111/1462-2920. (PDF)

148. Stecker D, Hoffmann T, Link H, Commichau FM, Bremer E. (2022) L-proline synthesis mutants of Bacillus subtilis overcome osmotic sensitivity by genetically adapting L-arginine metabolism. Front. Microbiol. 13:908304. (PDF)

147. Morawska L, Detert OWR, Frenzel E, Dirkzwager M, Hoffmann T, Bremer E, Kuipers O. (2022) Stress-induced activation of the proline biosynthetic pathway in Bacillus subtilis: a population-wide and single-cell study of the osmotically-controlled proHJ promotor. Microbial Biotechnology 15:2411-2425. (PDF) (Suppl)

146. Michel A.M., Borrero-de Acuna J.M., Molinari G., Ünal C.M., Will S., Derksen E., Barthels S., Bartram W., Schrader M., Rohde M., Zhang H., Hoffmann T., Neumann-Schaal M., Bremer E., Jahn D. (2022) Cellular adaptation of Clostridioides difficile to high salinity encompasses a compatible solute-responsive change in cell morphology. Environmental Microbiology (2022) 24(3) 1499-1517 (PDF) (Suppl)


145. Hermann L., Dempwolff F., Steinchen W., Freibert S.a., Smits SHJ, Seubert A., Bremer E. (2021) The MocR/GabR Ectoine and Hydroxyectoine Catabolism Regulator EnuR: Inducer and DNA Binding. Front Microbiol 2021 Dec 24; 12: 764731. (PDF) (Suppl)

144. Hoffmann T., Mrusek D., Bedrunka P., Burchert F., Mais C.N., Kearns D.B., Altegoer F., Bremer E., Bange G. (2021) Structural and functional characterization of the bacterial biofilm activator RemA. Nat Commun. 2021 Sep 29; 12(2): 5707. (PDF) (Suppl)

143. Frank C., Hoffmann T., Zelder O., Felle M.F., Bremer E. (2021) Enhanced glutamate synthesis and export by the thermotolerant emerging industrial workhorse Bacillus methanolicus in response to high osmolarity. Front Microbiol 12, 640980. (PDF) (Suppl)


142. Warmbold B., Ronzheimer S., Freibert S-A., Seubert A., Hoffmann T., Bremer E. (2020) Two MarR-type repressors balance precursor uptake and glycine betaine synthesis in Bacillus subtilis to provide cytoprotection against stustained osmotic stress. Front. Microbiol. 11:1700. (PDF) (Suppl)

141. Rath H., Sappa P. K., Hoffmann T., Gesell Salazar M., Reder A., Steil L., Hecker M., Bremer E., Mäder U., Völker U. (2020) Impact of high salinity and the compatible solute glycine betaine on gene expression of Bacillus subtilis. Env. Microbiol. 22:3266 - 3286. (PDF)

140. Mais C.-N., Hermann L., Altegoer F., Seubert A., Richter A. A., Wernersbach I., Czech L., Bremer E., Bange G. (2020) Degradation of the microbial stress protectants and chemical chaperones ectoine and hydroxyectoine by a bacterial hydrolase–deacetylase complex. J. Biol. Chem. 295:9087-9104. (PDF)   
Titelbild des Journal of Biological Chemistry im Zusammenhang mit dem oben genannten Artikel

139. Rath H., Reder A., Hoffmann T., Hammer E., Seubert A., Bremer E., Völker U., Mäder U. (2020) Management of osmoprotectant uptake hierachy in Bacillus subtilis via a SigB-dependent antisense RNA. Front. Microbiol. 11:622. (PDF) (Suppl)

138. Richter A. A., Kobus S., Czech L., Hoeppner A., Zarzycki J., Erb T.J., Lauterbach L., Dickschat J.S., Bremer E., Smits S.H.J. (2020) The architecture of the diaminobutyrate acetyltransferase active site provides mechanistic insight into the biosynthesis of the chemical chaperone ectoine. J Biol Chem. 259:2822-2838. (PDF) (Suppl) (Movie)


137. Richter A. A., Mais C.-N., Czech L., Geyer K., Hoeppner A., Smits S. H. J., Erb T. J., Bange G., Bremer E. (2019) Biosynthesis of the stress-protectant and chemical chaperon ectoine: biochemistry of the transaminase EctB. Front. Microbiol. 10:2811.

136. Schada von Borzykowski L., Severi S., Krüger K., Hermann L., Gilardet A., Sippel F., Pommerenke B., Claus P., Scorro Cortina N., Glatter T., Zauner T., Zarzycki J., Fuchs B. M., Bremer E., Maier U. G., Amann R. I., Erb T. J. (2019) Marine Proteobacteria metabolize glycolate via the ß-hydroxyaspartate cycle. Nature 575:500-504.

135. Czech L., Wilcken S., Czech O., Linne U., Brauner J., Smits S. H. J., Galinski E. A., Bremer E. (2019) Exploiting substrate promiscuity of ectoine hydroxylase for regio- and stereoselective modification of homoectoine. Front. Microbiol. 10:2745.

134. Czech L., Höppner A., Kobus S., Seubert A., Riclea R., Dickschat J. S., Heider J., Smits S. H. J., Bremer E. (2019) Illuminating the catalytic core of ectoine synthase through structural and biochemical analysis. Sci. Rep. Sci. Rep. 9:364. (PDF) (Suppl)



133. Ronzheimer S., Warmbold B., Arnhold C., Bremer E. (2018) The GbsR family of transcriptional regulators: functional characterization of the OpuAR repressor. Front. Microbiol. 9:2536 (PDF) (Suppl)

132. Teichmann L., Kümmel H., Warmbold B., Bremer E. (2018) OpuF: a new Bacillus compatible solute ABC transporter with a substrate-binding protein fused to the trans-membrane domain. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 84:e01728-18 (Spotlight) (PDF) (Suppl) (Highlight)

131. Jose M.J., Hoffmann T., Sanchez-Porro C., Heider J., Ventosa A., Bremer E. (2018) Compatible solute synthesis and import by the moderate halophile Spiribacter salinus: physiology and genomics. Front. Microbiol. 9: 108 (PDF) (Suppl)

130. Hoffmann T., Warmbold B., Smits S., Tschapek B., Ronzheimer S., Bashir A., Chen C., Rolbetzki A., Pittelkow M., Jebbar M., Seubert A., Schmitt L., Bremer E. (2018) Arsenobetaine: an ecophysiologically important organoarsenical confers cytoprotection against osmotic stress and growth temperature extremes. Env. Microbiol. 20: 305-323 (PDF) (Suppl)

129. Czech L., Poehl S., Hub P., Stoeveken N., Bremer E. (2018) Tinkering with osmotically controlled transcription allows enhanced production and excretion of ectoine and hydroxyectoine from a microbial cell factory. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 84: e01772-17 (PDF) (Suppl.) (Highlight)



128. Schulz A., Hermann L., Freibert S., Bönig T., Hoffmann T., Riclea R., Dickschat J., Heider J., Bremer E. (2017) Transcriptional regulation of ectoine catabolism in response to multiple metabolic and environmental cues. Env. Microbiol. 19: 4599-4619 (PDF) (Suppl.)

127. HoffmannT., Bleisteiner M., Sappa P., Steil L., Mäder U., Völker U., Bremer E. (2017) Synthesis of the compatible solute proline by Bacillus subtilis: Point mutations Rendering the osmotically controlled proHJ promoter hyperactive. Env. Microbiol. 19: 3700-3720 (PDF) (Suppl.)

126. Gundlach J., Herzberg C., Kaever V., Gunka K., Hoffmann T., Weiß M., Gibhardt J., Thürmer A., Hertel D., Daniel R., Bremer E., Commichau F.M., Stülke J. (2016) Control of potassium homeostasis is an essential function of the second messenger cyclic di-AMP in Bacillus subtilis. Sci Signal. 18:10(475) (PDF)  (Suppl)

 125. Teichmann L., Chen C., Hoffmann T., Smits H.J. S., Schmitt L., Bremer E. (2017) From substrate specificity to promiscuity: hybrid ABC transporters for osmoprotectants. Mol. Micro. 104: 761-780. (PDF) (Suppl.)

124. Schulz A., Stöveken N., Binzen I., Hoffmann T., Heider J., Bremer E. (2017) Feeding on compatible solutes: a substrate-induced pathway for uptake and catabolism of ectoines and its genetic control by EnuR. Env. Microbiol. 19: 926-946. (PDF) (Suppl.)


123. Nagler K., Krawczyk A.O., De Jong A., Madela K., Hoffmann T., Laue M., Kuipers O.P., Bremer E. and Moeller R. (2016) Identification of differentially expressed genes during Bacillus subtilis spore outgrowth in high-salinity environments using RNA sequencing. Frontiers in Microbiology. 7:1564 (PDF)

122. Czech L., Stöveken N., Bremer, E. (2016) EctD‑mediated biotransformation of the chemical chaperone ectoine into hydroxyectoine and its mechanosensitive channel‑independent excretion. Microb. Cell. Fact. 15(1):126 (PDF)

121. Widderich N., Czech L., Elling F.J., Könneke M., Stöveken N., Pittelkow M., Riclea R., Dickschat J.S., Heider J. and Bremer, E. (2016) Strangers in the archaeal world: osmostress-responsive biosynthesis of ectoine and hydroxyectoine by the marine thaumarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus. Env. Microbiol. 18:1227-1248. (PDF) (PDF Suppl)

120. Widderich N., Rodrigues C.D.A., Commichau F.M., Fischer K. E., Ramirez-Guadiana F.H., Rudner D.Z., Bremer E. (2016) Salt-sensitivity of SigH and Spo0A prevents sporulation of Bacillus subtilis at high osmolarity avoiding death during cellular differentiation. Mol. Microbiol. 100:108-124. (PDF)

119. Widderich N, Kobus S, Höppner A, Riclea R, Seubert A, Dickschat JS, Heider J, Smits SHJ, Bremer E. (2016) Biochemistry and crystal structure of ectoine synthase: a metal-containing member of the cupin superfamily. PLoS One 11(3): e0151285. (PDF)


118. Kobus, S., Widderich, N., Höppner, A., Bremer, E. and Smits, S. H. J. (2015) Overproduction, crystallization and X-ray diffraction data analysis of ectoine synthase from the cold-adapted marine bacterium Sphingopyxis alaskensis. Acta Cryst. F71, 1027-1032. (PDF)

117. Broy, S., Chen, C., Hoffmann, T., Brock, N. L., Nau-Wagner, G., Jebbar, M., Smits, S. H. J., Dickschat, J. S. and Bremer, E. (2015) Abiotic stress protection by ecologically abundant DMSP and its natural and synthetic derivatives: insights from Bacillus subtilis. Environ. Microbiol. 17:2362-2378. (PDF)

116. Zaprasis, A., Bleisteiner, M., Kerres, A., Hoffmann, T. and Bremer, E. (2015) Uptake of amino acids and their metabolic conversation into the compatible solute proline confers osmoprotection to Bacillus subtilis. Appl. Environm. Microbiol. 81:250-259. (PDF)



115. Höppner, A., Widderich, N., Lenders, M., Bremer, E. and Smits, Sander, S. H. J. (2014) Crystal structure of the ectoine hydroxylase: a snapshot of the active site. J. Biol. Chem. 289: 29570-29583. (PDF)

114. Bashir, A., Hoffmann, T., Kempf, B., Xie, X., Smits, S. H. J. and Bremer, E. (2014) The plant-derived compatible solute proline betaine and betonicine confer enhanced osmotic and temperature stress tolerance to Bacillus subtilis. Microbiology, 160, 2283-2294. (PDF)

113. Widderich, N., Hoeppner, A., Pittelkow, M., Heider, J., Smits, S. H. J. and Bremer, E. (2014) Biochemical properties of ectoine hydroxylases from extremophiles and their wider taxonomic distribution among microorganisms. PLoS One, 9(4):e93809. (PDF)

112. Wenzel, M., ..., Bremer, E., Becher, D., Brötz-Osterhelt, H., Sahl, H.-G. and Bandow, J. E. (2014) Small cationic antimicrobial peptides delocalize peripheral membrane proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA, E1409-E1418. (PDF)

111. Höppner, A., Widderich, N., Lenders, M., Bremer, E. and Smits, Sander, S. H. J. (2014) Crystal structure of the ectoine hydroxylase: a snapshot of the active site. J. Biol. Chem. 289: 29570-29583. (PDF)

110. Kohlstedt, M., …, Hecker, M., van Dijl, J. M., Lalk, M., Mäder, U., Stülke, J., Bremer, E., Völker, U. and Wittmann, C. (2014) Adaptation of Bacillus subtilis carbon core metabolism to simultaneous nutrient limitation and osmotic challenge: a multi-omics perspective. Environ. Microbiol. 16: 1898-1917. (PDF)

109. Bashir, A., Hoffmann, T., Smits, S. H. J. and Bremer, E. (2014) Dimethylglycine provides salt and temperature stress protection in Bacillus subtilis. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 80: 2773-2785. (PDF)

108. Widderich, N., Pittelkow, M., Höppner, A., Mulnaes, D., Buckel, W., Gohlke, H., Smits, S. H. and Bremer E. (2014) Molecular dynamics simulations and structure-guided mutagenesis provide insight into the architecture of the catalytic core of the ectoine hydroxylase. J. Mol. Biol. 426: 586-600. (PDF)

107. Zaprasis, A., Hoffmann, T., Wünsche, G., Flórez, L.A., Stülke, J. and Bremer, E. (2014) Mutational activation of the RocR activator and of a cryptic rocDEF promotor bypass loss of the initial steps of proline biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis. Environ. Microbiol. 16: 701-717. (PDF)

106. Zaprasis, A., Hoffmann, T., Stannek, L., Gunka, K., Commichau, F. M. and Bremer E. (2014) The γ-Aminobutyrate permease GabP serves as the third proline transporter of Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 196: 515-526. (PDF)
Titelbild des "Journal of Bacteriology" im Zusammenhang mit dem oben genannten Artikel


105. Becker, J., Schäfer, R., Kohlstedt, M., Harder, B. J., Borchert, N. S., Stöveken, N., Bremer, E. and Wittmann, Chr. (2013) Systems metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for production of the chemical chaperone ectoine. Microbial Cell Factories, 12:110. (PDF)

104. Schroeter, R., Hoffmann, T., ..., Maurer, K.-H., Putzer, H., Hecker, M., Schweder, T. and Bremer, E. (2013) Stress response of the industrial workhorse Bacillus licheniformis to osmotic challenges. PLoS One, 8(11): e80956. (PDF)

103. Hoffmann, T., Wensing, A., Brosius, M., Steil. L., Völker, U. and Bremer, E. (2013) Osmotic control of opuA expression in Bacillus subtilis and its modulation in response to intracellular glycine betaine and proline pools. J. Bacteriol. 195: 510-522. (PDF)

102. Zaprasis, A., Brill, J., Thüring, M., Wünsche, G., Heun, M., Barzantny, H., Hoffmann, T. and Bremer, E. (2013) Osmoprotection of Bacillus subtilis through Import and Proteolysis of Proline-Containing Peptides. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79: 576-587. (PDF)


101. Fischer, K. E. and Bremer, E. (2012) Activity of the osmotically regulated yqiHIK promotor from Bacillus subtilis is controlled at a distance. J. Bacteriol. 194: 5197-5280. (PDF) 
Titelbild des "Journal of Bacteriology" im Zusammenhang mit dem oben genannten Artikel

100. Hoffmann, T., von Blohn, C., Stanek, A., Moses, S., Barzantny, H. and Bremer, E. (2012) Synthesis, release, and recapture of the compatible solute proline by osmotically stressed Bacillus subtilis cells. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.78: 5753-5762. (PDF)  
Titelbild des Journal "Applied and Enrivonmental Microbiology" im Zusammenhang mit dem oben genannten Artikel

99. Nau-Wagner, G., Opper, D., Rolbetzki, A., Boch, J., Kempf, B., Hoffmann, T. and Bremer, E. (2012) Genetic control of osmoadaptive glycine betaine synthesis in Bacillus subtilis through the choline-sensing and glycine betaine-responsive GbsR repressor. J. Bacteriol. 194:2703-2714. (PDF)

98. Moses, S., Sinner, T., Zaprasis, A., Stöveken, N., Hoffmann, T., Belitsky, B. R., Sonenshein, A. L. and Bremer, E. (2012) Proline utilization by Bacillus subtilis: uptake and catabolism. J. Bacteriol. 194:745-758. (PDF)


97. Brill, J., Hoffmann, T., Bleisteiner, M. and Bremer, E. (2011) Osmotically controlled synthesis of the compatible solute proline is critical for cellular defense of Bacillus subtilis against high osmolarity. J. Bacteriol. 193:5335-5346. (PDF)

96. Kuhlmann, A. U., Hoffmann, T., Bursy, J., Jebbar, M. and Bremer, E. (2011) Ectoine and hydroxyectoine as protectants against osmotic and cold stress: Uptake through the SigB-controlled betaine-choline-carnitine transporter-type carrier EctT from Virgibacillus pantothenticus. J. Bacteriol. 193:4699-4708). (PDF)

95. Stöveken, N., Pittelkow, M., Sinner, T., Jensen, R. A., Heider, J. and Bremer, E. (2011) A specialized aspartokinase enhances the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectans ectoine and hydroxyectoine in Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501. J. Bact. 193:4456-4468. (PDF)

94. Eppinger, M., ... ... ..., Bremer, E., Jahn, D., Ravel, J. and Vary, P. S. (2011) Genome sequences of the biotechnologically important Bacillus megaterium strains QM B1551 and DSM319. J. Bacteriol. 193:4199-4213. (PDF)

93. Pittelkow, M., Tschapek, B., Smits, S. H. J., Schmitt, L. and Bremer, E. (2011). The crystal structure of the substrate-binding protein OpuBC from Bacillus subtilis in complex with choline. J. Mol. Biol. 411:53-67. (PDF)

92. Tschapek, B., Pittelkow, M., Sohn-Bösser, L., Holtmann, G., Smits, S. H. J., Gohlke, H., Bremer, E. and Schmitt, L. (2011) Arg149 is involved in switching the low affinity, open state of the binding protein AfProX into its high affinity, closed state. J. Mol. Biol. 411:36-52. (PDF)

91. Müller, S., Hoffmann, T., Santos, H., Saum, S. H., Bremer, E. and Müller V. (2011) Bacterial abl-like genes: Production of the archaeal osmolyte Nε- acetyl-β-lysine by homologous overexpression of the yodP-kamA genes in Bacillus subtilis. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 91:689-697. (PDF)

90. Hoffmann, T. and Bremer, E. (2011) Cold stress protection of Bacillus subtilis via compatible solute acquisition. J. Bacteriol. 193:1552-1562. (PDF)

89. Brill, J., Hoffmann, T., Putzer, H. and Bremer, E. (2011) T-box mediated control of the anabolic prolin biosynthetic genes of Bacillus subtilis. Microbiology, 157:977-987. (PDF)



88. Reuter, K., Pittelkow, M., Bursy, J., Heine, A., Craan, T. and Bremer, E. (2010) Crystal structure of the non-heme iron (II)-dependent dioxygenase EctD mediating synthesis of the compatible solute 5-hydroxyectoine from Ectoine. PLoS ONE, 5 (5):e10647. (PDF)

87. Hahne, H., Mäder, U., Otto, A., Bonn, F., Steil, L., Bremer, E., Hecker, M. and Becher, D. (2010). A comprehensive proteomics and transcriptomics analysis of Bacillus subtilis salt stress adaption. J. Bacteriol. 192:870-882. (PDF)



86. Oswald, C., Smits, S. H. J.,Höing, M., Bremer, E. and Schmitt, L. (2009). Structural analysis of the choline binding protein ChoX in a semi-closed and ligand-free conformation. Biol. Chem. 390:1163-1170. (PDF)

85. Lecher, J., Pittelkow, M., Zobel, S., Bursy, J., Bönig, T., Smits, S. H. J., Schmitt, L. and Bremer, E. (2009). The crystal structure of UehA in complex with ectoine - A comparison with other TRAP-T binding proteins. J. Mol. Biol. 389:58-73. (PDF)



84. Bursy, J., Kuhlmann, A. U., Pittelkow, M., Hartmann, H., Jebbar, M., Pierik, A. J. and Bremer, E. (2008). Synthesis and uptake of the compatible solutes ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) in response to salt and heat stress. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:7286-7296. (PDF)

83. Oswald, C., Smits, S.H.J., Höing, M., Sohn-Bösser, L., Dupont, L., Le Rudulier, D., Schmitt, L. and Bremer, E. (2008). Crystal structures of the choline/acetylcholine substrate binding protein ChoX from Sinorhizobium meliloti in the liganded and unliganded closed states. J. Biol. Chem. 283:32848-32859. (PDF)

82. Oswald, C., Smits, S. H. J., Bremer, E., and Schmitt, L. (2008). Microseeding - a powerful tool for crystallizing proteins in complex with hydrolyzable substrates. Int. J. Mol. Si. 9:1131-1141. (PDF)

81. Smits, S. H. J., Höing, M., Lecher, J., Jebbar, M., Schmitt L., and Bremer E. (2008). The compatible solute-binding protein OpuAC from Bacillus subtilis: ligand-binding, site directed mutagenesis and crystallographic studies. J.Bacteriol. 190:5663-5671. (PDF)

80. Kuhlmann, A. U., Bursy J., Gimpe,l S., Hoffmann, T., and Bremer, E. (2008). Synthesis of the compatible solute ectoine in Virgibacillus pantothenticus is triggered by  high salinity and low growth temperature. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:4560-4563. (PDF)

79. Horn, C., S. Jenewein, B. Tschapek, W. Bouschen, S. Metzger, E. Bremer and L. Schmitt. (2008). Monitoring conformational changes during the catalytic cycle of OpuAA, the ATPase subunit of the ABC-transporter OpuA from Bacillus subtilis. Biochem. J. 412:233-244. (PDF)

78. Hoffmann, T., C. Boiangiou, Moses S. and Bremer, E. (2008). Responses of Bacillus subtilis to hypotonic challenges: physiological contributions of mechanosensitive channels to cellular survival. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:2454-2460. (PDF)



77. Hanekop, N., M. Hoeing, L. Sohn-Bösser, M. Jebbar, L. Schmitt and Bremer, E. (2007). Crystal structure of the ligand-binding protein EhuB from Sinorhizobium meliloti reveals substrate recognition for the compatible solutes ectoine and hydroxyectoine. J. Mol. Biol. 374:1237-1250. (PDF)

76. Bursy, J., A.J. Pierik, N. Pica, and Bremer, E. (2007). Osmotically induced synthesis of the compatible solute hydroxyectoine is mediated by an evolutionary conserved ectoine hydroxylase. J. Biol. Chem. 282:31147-31155. (PDF)



75. Budde, I., L. Steil, C. Scharf, U. Völker and Bremer, E. (2006). Adaptation of Bacillus subtilis to growth at low temperature: a combined transcriptomic and proteomic appraisal. Microbiology 152:831-853. (PDF)

74. Horn, C., L. Sohn-Bösser, J. Breed, W. Welte, L. Schmitt and Bremer, E. (2006). Molecular determinants for substrate specificity of the ligand-binding protein OpuAC from Bacillus subtilis for the compatible solutes glycine betaine and proline betaine. J. Mol. Biol. 357:592-606. (PDF)



73. Horn, C., Bremer, E. and L. Schmitt. (2005). Functional overexpression and in vitro re-association of OpuA, an osmotically regulated ABC-transport complex from Bacillus subtilis. FEBS Lett. 579:5765-5768. (PDF)

72. Jebbar, M., L. Sohn-Bösser, Bremer, E., T. Bernard and C. Blanco. (2005). Ectoine-induced proteins in Sinorhizobium meliloti include an ectoine ABC-type transporter involved in osmoprotection and ectoine catabolism. J. Bacteriol. 187:1293-1304. (PDF)



71. Schiefner, A., G. Holtmann, K. Diederichs, W. Welte and Bremer, E. (2004). Structural basis for the binding of compatible solutes by ProX from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. J. Biol. Chem. 279:48270-48281. (PDF)

70. Holtmann, G., M. Brigulla, L. Steil, A. Schütz, K. Barnekow, U. Völker and Bremer, E. (2004). RsbV-independent induction of the SigB-dependent general stress regulon of Bacillus subtilis during growth at high temperature. J. Bacteriol. 186:6150-6158. (PDF)

69. Holtmann, G. and Bremer, E. (2004). Thermoprotection of Bacillus subtilis by glycine betaine and structurally related compatible solutes: involvement of Opu-transporters. J. Bacteriol. 186: 1683-1693. (PDF)

68. Schiefner, A., J. Breed, L. Bösser, S. Kneip, J. Gade, G. Holtmann, K. Diedrichs, W. Welte and Bremer, E. (2004). Cation-π interactions as determinants for binding of the compatible solutes glycine betaine and proline betaine by the periplasmic ligand-binding protein ProX from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 279:5588-5596. (PDF)



67. Horn, C., Bremer, E and L. Schmitt. (2003). Nucleotide dependent monomer/dimer equilibrium of OpuAA, the nucleotide binding protein of the osmotically regulated ABC-transporter OpuA from Bacillus subtilis. J. Mol. Biol. 334:403-419. (PDF)

66. Steil, L., T. Hoffmann, I. Budde, U. Völker and Bremer, E. (2003). Genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis of adaptation of Bacillus subtilis to high salinity. J. Bacteriol. 185:6358-6370. (PDF)

65. Brigulla, M., T. Hoffmann, A. Krisp, A. Völker, Bremer, E and U. Völker. (2003). Chill induction of the SigB-dependent general stress response in Bacillus subtilis and its contribution to low temperature adaptation. J. Bacteriol. 185:4305-4314. (PDF)

64. Holtmann, G., E. P. Bakker, N. Ouzumi and E. Bremer. (2003). KtrAB and KtrCD: two K+ uptake systems in Bacillus subtilis and their role in the adaptation to hypertonicity. J. Bacteriol. 185:1289-1298. (PDF)



63. Kuhlmann, A. U. and Bremer, E. (2002). Osmotically regulated synthesis of the compatible solute ectoine in Bacillus pasteurii and related Bacillus spp. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:772-783. (PDF)

62. Hoffmann, T., A. Schütz, M. Brosius, A. Völker, U. Völker and Bremer, E. (2002) High-salinity-induced iron limitation in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol 184:718-727. (PDF)



61. Belitsky, B. R., J. Brill, Bremer, E and A. L. Sonenshein. (2001). Multiple genes for the last step of proline biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol 183:4389-4392. (PDF)

60. Breed, J., S. Kneip, J. Gade, W. Welte and Bremer, E. (2001). Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the periplasmic binding protein ProX from Escherichia coli. Acta Cryst. D57:448-450. (PDF)



59. Canovas, D., C. Vargas, S. Kneip, M.-J. Morón, A. Ventosa, E. Bremer and J.J. Nieto. (2000). Genes for the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from choline in the moderate halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata DSM 3043. Microbiology 146:455-463. (PDF)


58. Kappes, R.M., B. Kempf, S. Kneip, J. Boch, J. Gade, J. Meier-Wagner and E. Bremer. (1999). Two evolutionarily closely related ABC-transporters mediate the uptake of choline for the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine in Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Microbiol. 32: 203-216. (PDF)

 57. Nau-Wagner, G., J. Boch, J.A. Le Good and E. Bremer. (1999). High-affinity transport of choline-O-sulfate and its use as a compatible solute in Bacillus subtilis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:560-568. (PDF)



56. Spiegelhalter, F. and E. Bremer. (1998). Osmoregulation of the opuE proline transport gene from Bacillus subtilis: contributions of the sigma A- and sigma B-dependent stress responsive promoters. Mol. Microbiol. 29:285-296. (PDF)

55. Calamita, G., B. Kempf, M. Bonhivers, W.R. Bishai, E. Bremer and P. Agre. (1998). Regulation of the E. coli water channel gene, aqpZ. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95:3627-3631. (PDF)

54. Kappes, R.M.and E. Bremer. (1998). Response of Bacillus subtilis to high osmolarity: uptake of carnitine, crotonobetaine and butyrobetaine via the ABC-transport system OpuC. Microbiology 144:83-90. (PDF)



53. Calamita, G., B. Kempf, K.E. Rudd, M. Bonhivers, S. Kneip, W.R. Bishai, E. Bremer and P. Agre. (1997). The aquaporin-Z water channel gene of Escherichia coli: structure, organi­zation and phylogeny. Biol. Cell 89:321-329. (PDF)

52. Kempf, B., J. Gade, and E. Bremer. (1997). Lipoprotein from the osmoregulated ABC-tran­sport system OpuA of Bacillus subtilis: purification of the glycine betaine binding protein and characterization of a functional lipidless mutant. J. Bacteriol. 178:6213-6220. (PDF)

51. Boch, J., G. Nau-Wagner, S. Kneip and E. Bremer. (1997). Glycine betaine aldehyde dehy­drogenase from Bacillus subtilis: characterization of an enzyme required for the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine. Arch. Microbiol. 168:282-289. (PDF)

50. Jebbar, M., von Blohn, C. and E. Bremer. (1997). Ectoine functions as an osmoprotectant in Bacillus subtilis and is accumulated via the ABC-transport system OpuC. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 154:325-330. (PDF)

49. von Blohn, C., Kempf, B., Kappes, R.M. and Bremer, E. (1997). Osmostress response in Bacillus subtilis: characterization of a proline uptake system (OpuE) regulated by high osmolarity and the alternative transcription factor sigma B. Mol. Microbiol. 25:175-187. (PDF)

48. Nieweg, A. and E. Bremer. (1997). The nucleoside-specific Tsx channel from the outer mem-brane of Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes: func-tional characterization and DNA sequence analysis of the tsx genes. Microbiology 143:603-615. (PDF)



47. Haardt, M. and E. Bremer. (1996). Use of phoA and lacZ fusions to study the membrane topo­logy of ProW, a component of the osmoregulated ProU transport system of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 178:5370-5381. (PDF)

46. Boch, J., B. Kempf, R. Schmid and E. Bremer. (1996). Synthesis of the osmoprotectant gly­cine betaine in Bacillus subtilis: characterization of the gbsAB genes. J. Bacteriol. 178:5121-5129. (PDF)

45. Kappes, R.M., B. Kempf and E. Bremer. (1996). Three transport systems for the osmopro­tectant glycine betaine operate in Bacillus subtilis: characterization of OpuD. J. Bacteriol. 178:5071-5079. (PDF)

44. Kempf, B. and E. Bremer. (1996). A novel amidohydrolase gene from Bacillus subtilis: clo­ning, DNA-sequence analysis and map position of amhX. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 141:129-137. (PDF)



43. Kempf, B. and E. Bremer. (1995). OpuA, an osmotically regulated binding protein-dependent transport system for the osmoprotectant glycine betaine in Bacillus subtilis. J. Biol. Chem. 270:16701-16713. (PDF)

42. Haardt, M., B. Kempf, E. Faatz, and E. Bremer. (1995). The osmoprotectant proline betaine is a major substrate for the binding-protein dependent transport system ProU of Escherichia coli-K-12. Mol. Gen. Genet. 246:783-786. (PDF)



41. Herbst, B., S. Kneip and E. Bremer. (1994). pOSEX: vectors for osmotically controlled and finely tuned gene expression in Escherichia coli. Gene 151:137-142. (PDF)

40. Dersch, P., S. Kneip and E. Bremer. (1994). The nucleoid-associated DNA-binding protein H-NS is required for the efficient adaptation of Escherichia coli to a cold environment. Mol. Gen. Genet. 245:255-259. (PDF)

39. Dersch, P., H. Fsihi and E. Bremer. (1994). Low-copy-number T7-vectors for selective gene expression and efficient protein overproduction in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 123:19-26. (PDF)

38. Whitley, P., T. Zander, M. Ehrmann. M. Haardt, E. Bremer and G. von Heijne. (1994). Sec-independent translocation of a 100-residue long periplasmic N-terminal tail in the E. coli inner membrane protein ProW. EMBO J. 13:4653-4661. (PDF)

37. Boch, J., B. Kempf and E. Bremer. (1994). Osmoregulation in Bacillus subtilis: synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from exogenously provided choline. J. Bacteriol. 176:5364-5371. (PDF)

36. Lucht, J.M., P. Dersch, B. Kempf and E. Bremer. (1994). Interactions of the nucleoid asso­ciated DNA-binding protein H-NS protein with the regulatory region of the osmotically con­trolled proU operon of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 269:6578-6586. (PDF)



35. Fsihi, H., B. Kottwitz and E. Bremer. (1993). Single amino acid substitutions affecting the substrate specificity of the Escherichia coli nucleoside-specific Tsx channel. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 17495-17503. (PDF)

34. Dersch, P., K. Schmidt and E. Bremer. (1993). Synthesis of the Escherichia coli K-12 nucleoid associated DNA-binding protein H-NS is subjected to growth phase control and autoregulation. Mol. Microbiol. 8:875-889. (PDF)

33. Schneider, H., H. Fsihi, B. Kottwitz, B. Mygind and E. Bremer. (1993). Identification of a segment of the Escherichia coli Tsx protein that functions as a bacteriophage receptor area. J. Bacteriol. 175:2809-2917. (PDF)



32. Pedersen, H., L. Søgaard-Andersen, B. Holst, P. Gerlach, E. Bremer and P. Valentin-Hansen. (1992). The cAMP-CRP activator complex and the CytR repressor protein bind co­operatively to the cytR promoter in Escherichia coli and CytR antagonizes the cAMP-CRP induced DNA bend. J. Mol. Biol. 227:396-406. (PDF)

31. Lucht, J.M., W. Boos, and E. Bremer. (1992). Alignment of genes from the 9 min region (araJ to tsx) of the Escherichia coli K-12 linkage map to the physical map. J. Bacteriol. 174:1709-1710. (PDF)



30. Gerlach, P., L. Søgaard-Andersen, H. Pedersen, J. Martinussen, P. Valentin-Hansen and E. Bremer. (1991). The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein complex functions both as an activator and as a corepressor at the tsx-p2 promoter of Escherichia coli K-12. J. Bacteriol. 173:5419-5430. (PDF)

29. Lucht, J.M. and E. Bremer. (1991). Characterization of mutations affecting the osmoregulated proU promoter of Escherichia coli and identification of 5` sequences required for high-level expression. J. Bacteriol. 173:801-809. (PDF)



28. Bremer, E., A. Middendorf, J. Martinussen and P. Valentin-Hansen. (1990). Analysis of the tsx gene, which encodes a nucleoside-specific channel forming protein (Tsx) in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. Gene 96:59-65. (PDF)

27. May, G., P. Dersch, M. Haardt, A. Middendorf and E. Bremer. (1990). The osmZ (bglY) gene encodes the DNA binding protein H-NS (H1a), a component of the Escherichia coli K12 nucleoid. Mol. Gen. Genet. 224:81-90. (PDF)

26. Maier, C., A. Middendorf and E. Bremer. (1990). Analysis of a mutated phage T6 receptor protein of Escherichia coli K12. Mol. Gen. Genet. 221:491-494. (PDF)

25. Gerlach, P., P. Valentin-Hansen and E. Bremer. (1990). Transcriptional regulation of the cytR repressor gene of Escherichia coli: autoregulation and positive control by the cAMP/CAP complex. Mol. Microbiol. 4:479-488. (PDF)



24. May, G., E. Faatz, J.M. Lucht, M. Haardt, M. Bolliger and E. Bremer. (1989). Characteriza­tion of the osmoregulated Escherichia coli proU promoter and identification of ProV as a membrane-associated protein. Mol. Microbiol. 3:1521-1531. (PDF)

23. Graeme-Cook, K.A., G. May, E. Bremer and C.F. Higgins. (1989). Osmotic regulation of porin expression: a role for DNA supercoiling. Mol. Microbiol. 3:1287-1294. (PDF)

22. Gutierrez, C., M. Ardourel, E. Bremer, A. Middendorf, W. Boos and U. Ehmann. (1989). Analysis and DNA sequence of the osmoregulated treA gene encoding the periplasmic trehalase of Escherichia coli K12. Mol. Gen. Genet. 217:347-354. (PDF)

21. Ramirez, R.M., W.S. Prince, E. Bremer and M. Villarejo. (1989). In vitro reconstitution of osmoregulated expression of proU of Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86:1153-1157. (PDF)



20. Bremer, E., T.J. Silhavy and G.M. Weinstock. (1988). Transposition of lplacMu is mediated by the A protein altered at its carboxy-terminal end. Gene 71:177-186. (PDF)

19. Benz, R., A. Schmid, C. Maier and E. Bremer. (1988). Characterization of the nucleoside-binding site inside the Tsx channel of Escherichia coli outer membrane. Reconstitution ex­periments with lipid bilayer membranes. Eur. J. Biochem. 176:699-705. (PDF)

18. Faatz, E., A. Middendorf and E. Bremer. (1988). Cloned structural genes for the osmotically regulated binding-protein-dependent glycine betaine transport system (ProU) of Escherichia coli K-12. Mol. Microbiol. 2:265-279. (PDF)

17. Higgins, C.F., C.J. Dorman, D.A. Stirling, L. Wadell, I.R. Booth, G. May and E. Bremer. (1988). A physiological role for DNA supercoiling in the osmotic regulation of gene expres­sion in S. typhimurium and E. coli. Cell 52:569-584. (PDF)

16. Maier, C., E. Bremer, A. Schmid and R. Benz. (1988). Pore-forming activity of the Tsx pro­tein from the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. Demonstration of a nucleoside-specific binding site. J. Biol. Chem. 263:2493-2499. (PDF)

15. Bremer, E., P. Gerlach, and A. Middendorf. (1988). Double negative and positive control of tsx expression in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 170:108-116. (PDF)


14. Lang, H.,T. Teeri, S. Kurkela, E. Bremer and E.T. Palva. (1987). A plasmid vector for simultaneous generation of lacZ protein fusions and npt-II operon fusions in vivo. FEMS Micro­biol. Lett. 48:305-315 (PDF)

13. Boos, W., U. Ehmann, E. Bremer, A. Middendorf and P. Postma. (1987). Trehalase of Escherichia coli. Mapping and cloning of its structural gene and identification of the enzyme as a periplasmatic protein induced under high-osmolarity growth conditions. J. Biol. Chem. 262:13212-13218. (PDF)

12. Benson, S.A. and E. Bremer. (1987). In vivo selection and characterization of internal deletions in the lamB-lacZ gene fusions. Gene 52:165-173. (PDF)


11. May, G., E. Faatz, M. Villarejo and E. Bremer. (1986). Binding protein dependent transport of glycine betaine and its osmotic regulation in Escherichia coli K12. Mol. Gen. Genet. 205: 225-233. (PDF)

10. Barron, A., G. May, E. Bremer and M. Villarejo. (1986). Regulation of envelope protein composition during adaptation to osmotic stress in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 167:433-438. (PDF)

9. Bremer, E., T.J. Silhavy, M. Maldener, and S.T. Cole. (1986). Isolation and characterization of mutants deleted for the sulA-ompA region of the Escherichia coli K-12. chromosome. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 33:173-178. (PDF)


8. Bremer, E., T.J. Silhavy and G.M. Weinstock. (1985). Transposable lplacMu bacteriophages for creating lacZ operon fusions and kanamycin resistance insertions in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 162:1092-1099. (PDF)



7. Bremer, E., T.J. Silhavy, J.M. Weisemann and G.M. Weinstock. (1984). lplacMu: a transposable derivative of bacteriophage lambda for creating lacZ protein fusions in a single step. J. Bacteriol. 158:1084-1093. (PDF)

6. Benson, S.A., E. Bremer and T.J. Silhavy. (1984). Intragenic regions required for LamB export. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81:3830-3834. (PDF)


5. Henning, U., S.T. Cole, E. Bremer, I. Hindennach and H. Schaller. (1983). Gene fusions using the ompA gene coding for a major outer membrane protein of Escherichia coli K12. Eur. J. Biochem 136:233-240. (PDF)



4. Cole, S.T., E. Bremer, I. Hindennach and U. Henning. (1982) Characterization of the promo­ters for the ompA gene which encodes a major outer membrane protein of Escherichia coli. Mol. Gen. Genet. 188:472-479. (PDF)

3. Bremer, E., S.T. Cole, I. Hindennach, U. Henning, E. Beck, C. Kurz and H. Schaller. (1982). Export of a protein into the outer membrane of Escherichia coli K12. Stable incorporation of the OmpA protein requires less than 193 amino-terminal amino-acid residues. Eur. J. Biochem. 122:223-231. (PDF)



2. Beck, E. and E. Bremer. (1980). Nucleotide sequence of the gene ompA coding the outer mem­brane protein II* of Escherichia coli K-12. Nucleic Acids Res. 8:3011-3024. (PDF)

1. Bremer, E., E. Beck, I. Hindennach, I. Sonntag and U. Henning. (1980). Cloned structural gene (ompA) for an integral outer membrane protein of Escherichia coli K-12. Localization on hybrid plasmid pTU100 and expression of a fragment of the gene. Mol. Gen. Genet. 179:13-20. (PDF)